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Latin Text Commentaries & Epigraphical Sources Sites for the Study of Ancient Women

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Bibliography in Spanish: books and articles on ancient women, compiled by María Concepción Palomo Ramos, Librarian and Researcher, Centro de Estudios de la Mujer, Universidad de Salamanca (España)

Adler, Eric. 2008.
"Boudica's Speeches in Tacitus and Dio." In Classical World 101.2: 173-195.

Allason-Jones, Lindsay. 2006².
Women in Roman Britain. York: Council for British Archaeology.

Altman, William H.F. 2009.
"Womanly Humanism in Cicero's Tusculan Disputations." In TAPA 139:411-445.

Ancona, Ronnie and Ellen Greene. 2005.
Gendered Dynamics in Latin Love Poetry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

Arietti, James A. 1997.
“Rape and Livy´s View of Roman History." In Rape in Antiquity. Edited by Susan Deacy and Karen F. Pierce, 209-229. London and Swansea: Duckworth and The Classical Press of Wales.

Arjave, Antti. 1996.
Women and Law in Late Antiquity. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Armstrong, Rebecca. 2006.
Cretan Women: Pasiphae, Ariadne, and Phaedra in Latin Poetry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Augoustakis, Antony. 2006.
"Conivnx in Limine Primo: Regulus and Marcia in Punica 6." In Ramus 35.2: 144-168.

Augoustakis, Antony. 2010
Motherhood and the Other: Fashioning Female Power in Flavian Epic. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.

Contents: Introduction: Other and Same: Female Presence in Flavian epic; 1. Mourning Endless: Female Otherness in Statius' Thebaid; 2. Defining the Other: From altera patria to tellus mater in Silius Italicus' Punica; 3. Comes ultima fati: Regulus' Encounter with Marcia's Otherness in Punica 6; 4. Playing the Same: Roman and Non-Roman Mothers in the Punica; Epilogue: Virgins and (M)others: Appropriations of Same and Other in Flavian Rome. For a review of this book see BMCR 2011.11.07.

Augoustakis, Antony. 2008.
"The Other as Same: Non-Roman Mothers in Silius Italicus' Punica." In Classical Philology 103: 55-76.

Bagnall, Roger S. and Raffaella Criviore. 2006.
Women's Letters from Ancient Egypt. 300 B.C.-A.D. 800, with contributions by Evie Ahtaridis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2006.11.19.

Balsdon, J.P.V.C. 1962.
Roman Women: Their History and Habits. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Barrett, Anthony A. 1996.
Agrippina: Sex Power, and Politics in the Early Empire. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Barrett, Anthony A. 2004.
Livia: First Lady of Imperial Rome. New Haven: Yale University Press. New edition.

Baugh, S. M. 1999.
"Cult Prostitution In New Testament Ephesus: A Reappraisal." In Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 42.3: 443-460.

Baugh examines the evidence for cult prostitution in the New Testament world. Scholars have generally accepted that such prostitution was a common practice in the rites connected with Aphrodite and Artemis, particularly at Ephesus and Corinth. Baugh finds that ancient sources on such prostitution have been misunderstood as referring to contemporary practices; the ancient sources actually discuss cultic prostitution several centuries before New Testament times and in countries such as Armenia. He finds no evidence for cultic prostitution at Ephesus or Corinth. He reviews inscriptions naming priestesses of Artemis at Ephesus and concludes these inscriptions offer not only no evidence of cultic prostitution by priestesses, but, on the contrary, indicate that the priestesses were daughters of Ephesian nobility that served the goddess, as the inscriptions state, "in purity." Inscriptions and other ancient sources are all translated.

Bauman, R. A. 1992.
Women and Politics in Ancient Rome. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415115221. 304 pages.

Bauman investigates the role of Roman women in business, public affairs, law, and government from ca. 350 BCE through the Julio-Claudian emperors. He demonstrates that there was an expansion of women's influence in these spheres even before the prominent women of the early Principate.

Beard, Mary, John North, and Simon Price. 1998.
Religions of Rome. Volume 1: A history. Volume 2: A sourcebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Becker, T.H. 1997.
"Ambiguity and the Female Warrior: Vergil's Camilla." In Electronic Antiquity: Communicating the Classics, 4 (1).

Bell, Albert A., Jr.. 1984.
"Martial's Daughter?" In The Classical World 78.1: 21-24.

Bell, Sinclair and Inge Lyse Hansen (eds.). 2008.
Role Models in the Roman World: Identity and Assimilation. Supplementary Volume 7: Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2009-07-59.
Essays focused on women are: Chapter 2: Suzanne Dixon, "Gracious patrons and vulgar success stories in Roman public media" (pp. 57-68); Chapter 8: Eve D'Ambra, "Daughters as Diana: Mythological models in Roman portraiture" (pp. 171-183); Chapter 9: Eric R. Varner, "Transcending gender: Assimilation, identity, and Roman Imperial portraits" (pp. 185-205); Chapter 10: Glenys Davies, "Portrait statues as models for gender roles in Roman society" (pp. 207-220); Chapter 11: Sarah B. Pomeroy, "Spartan women among the Romans: Adapting models, forging identities" (pp. 221-234); Chapter 14: Inge Lyse Hansen, "Muses as models: Learning and the complicity of authority" (pp. 273-285).

Benario, Herbert W. 2007.
"Boudica Warrior Queen." In Classical Outlook 82.2: 70-73.

Berrino, Nicoletta Francesca. 2006.
Mulier potens: realtà femminili nel mondo antico. In Historie: Collana di Studi e monumenti per le scienze dell'antichità 4. Galatina (Lecce): Congedo Editore. Pp. 198. ISBN 88-8086-656-7.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2007.04.60

Boatwright, Mary T. 1993.
"The City Gate of Plancia Magna in Perge." In Roman Art in Context: An Anthology. Edited by Eve D'Ambra, 189-207. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-781808-4. 247 pp., 97 b/w. Glossary, bibliography.

Plancia Magna rebuilt the main gate of her native city, Perge (Turkey), in 121 CE. A prominent public benefactor, Plancia Magna held several magistracies and priesthoods and was connected with the imperial cult in her home town. Boatwright examines the reliefs and inscriptions adorning the gate to show how the gate celebrated Perge's history as a city and its ties to the imperial house, as well as how the gate displayed the ambition and vision of Plancia Magna.

Boatwright, Mary T. 1991.
"Plancia Magna of Perge: Women's Role and Status in Roman Asia Minor." In Women's History and Ancient History, edited by Sarah S. Pomeroy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 249-272.

Boatwright, Mary T. 1991.
"The Imperial Women of the Early Second Century A.C." In American Journal of Philology 112: 513-540.

Boatwright, Mary T. 2011.
"Women and Gender in the Forum Romanum." In Transactions of the American Philological Association 141: 105-141.

Bolton, M. Catherine. 2009.
"Gendered Spaces in Ovid’s Heroides." In Classical World 102.3 (Spring): 273-290.

Bond, Sarah Emily. 2007.
"Ob Merita: The Epigraphic Rise and Fall of the Civic Patrona in North Africa." Masters dissertation in the History Department, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Bonner, Stanley F. 1977.
Education in Ancient Rome: From the Elder Cato to the Younger Pliny. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Borgeaud, Philippe. 2004.
Mother of the Gods: From Cybele to the Virgin Mary. Translated by Lysa Hochroth. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Boyd, B. W. 1992.
"Virgil's Camilla and the Traditions of Catalogue and Ecphrasis (Aeneid 7.803-17)." In American Journal of Philology 113.2: 213-234.

Boyle, A. J, ed. 2008.
Octavia: Text and Translation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2008.12.39

Bradley, Keith R. 1991.
Discovering the Roman Family: studies in Roman social history. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bradley, Keith R. November, 2005.
"'The Bitter Chain of Slavery': Reflections on Slavery in Ancient Rome." Delivered in the Frank M. Snowden, Jr. Lectures at Howard University. Center for Hellenic Studies, Washington, DC.

Braund, Susanna Morton. 2002.
Latin Literature. London and New York: Routledge.

Brodd, Jeffrey and Jonathan L. Reed (eds.) . 2011.
Rome and Religion: a Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult. Writings from the Greco-Roman world supplement series, 5. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.

Note particularly the article # 6 Imperial Cult in Roman Corinth: A Response to Karl Galinsky’s “The Cult of the Roman Emperor: Uniter or Divider?” by Barbette Stanley Spaeth. For a review see BMCR 2012.06.03.

Brown, Peter. 2008.
The Body and Society. Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early ChristianityConcordia. New York: Columbia University Press.

For a review of the book see BMCR 2009.04.72

Brown, Robert. 1995.
"Livy's Sabine Women and the Ideal of Concordia." In Transactions of the American Philological Association 125:291-319.

Burns, Jasper. 2007.
Great Women of Imperial Rome: Mothers and Wives of the Caesars. London and New York: Routledge.

Burstein, Stanley M. 2007.
The Reign of Cleopatra. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Cadoux, T. J. 2005.
"Catiline and the Vestal Virgins." In Historia: Zeitschrift fur Alte Geschichte 54.2: 162-179.

Cahoon, Leslie. Autumn 1990.
"Let the Muse Sing On: Poetry, Criticism, Feminism, and the Case of Ovid." In Helios 17.2: 197-212.

Cantarella, Eva. 1986.
Pandora's Daughters: The Role and Status of Women in Greek and Roman Antiquity. Translated by Maureen B. Fant. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Carlon, Jacqueline M. 2009.
Pliny's Women: Constructing Virtue and Creating Identity in the Roman World. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Carlon argues that Pliny carefully selected and arranged his letters to and about women in order to present himself as "an exemplar of moral rectitude and proper comportment" (2). She classifies the thirty-three identifiable women in his letters into five groups: those connected with the Stoic opposition to Nero, Vespasian, and Domitian; those connected with Corellius Rufus, Pliny's patron; those to whom Pliny showed loyalty or kindness; those whom he used as exemplars of the ideal wife; and those whom he found improper. In doing so Carlon unwinds the intertwined familial, marital, and social networks that bound the women and their male relatives and spouses with Pliny. She finds that Pliny gives details about the lives of elite women that we might otherwise only guess at. An appendix provides the stemmata of Pliny's women and their families. For a full review of the book, see BMCR 2010.02.59

Carpino, Alexandre A. 2003.
Discs of Splendor: The Relief Mirrors of the Etruscans. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Caston, Ruth Rothaus. 2006.
"Love as Illness: Poets and Philosophers on Romantic Love." In The Classical Journal 101.3: 271-98.

Centlivres Challet, Claude-Emmanuelle. 2009.
Like Man, Like Woman: Roman Women, Gender Qualities and Conjugal Relationships at the Turn of the First Century. Wien: Peter Lang. ISBN 9783039119127.

For a review of this book and its contents, see BMCR 2014.06.10

Churchill, Laurie J. 2006.
" Is There a Woman in This Textbook? Feminist Pedagogy and Elementary Latin." In When Dead Tongues Speak: Teaching Beginning Greek and Latin. Edited by John Gruber-Miller, 86-109. American Philological Association Classical Resources Series. New York: Oxford University Press.

The article briefly sets forth the contributions of feminist scholarship related to pedagogical practices and presents the rationale for developing feminist materials and methods for teaching elementary Latin. The author concludes with various types of exercises that incorporate feminist pedagogical objectives and enhance implementation of the Standards for Classical Language Learning. For a review of the book that unfortunately does not include this excellent article, see BMCR 2008.03.07

Churchill, Laurie J., Phyllis R. Brown, Jane E. Jeffrey (eds.). 2002.
Women Writing Latin From Roman Antiquity to Early Modern Europe. 3 vols. London and New York: Routledge.

In their introduction to Volume I, Women Writing Latin in Roman Antiquity, Late Antiquity, and the Early Christian Era, the editors discuss the significance of this three-volume project in the Routledge series of women writing in various languages. The volume is a significant addition to the still incipient scholarly study of women's writings. The editors discuss the problems women faced in gaining literacy and address why women engaged in the various kinds of writing they did. Each woman writer is introduced by a short essay, accompanied by a brief bibliography, on her life (if known), milieu, and genre. The Latin texts are accompanied by English translations. Volume I includes: "Women Writing in Rome and Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi," Cornelia's letters by Judith P. Hallett; "An Introduction to Epigraphic Poetry," by Jane Stevenson; "The Eleven Elegies of the Augustan Poet Sulpicia," by Judith P. Hallett; "Women's Graffiti from Pompeii," by Elizabeth Woeckner; "The Vindolanda Letters from Claudia Severa," by Judith P. Hallett; "Vibia Perpetua: Mystic and Martyr," by Judith Lynn Sebesta; "Faltonia Betitia Proba: A Virgilian Cento in Praise of Christ," by Bernice M. Kaczynski; "Inscriptions on Fabia Aconia Paulina," by Victoria Erhart; and "Itinerarium Egeriae: A Pilgrim's Journey," by Victoria Erhart.

Claasson, Jo-Marie. 1996.
"Documents of a Crumbling Marriage: The Case of Cicero and Terentia." In Phoenix 50.3/4: 208-232. Click here for the PDF version.

Clark, Anna J. 2007.
Divine Qualities. Cult and Community in Republican Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. xiv, 376. ISBN 978-0-19-922682-5.

Clark, Gillian. 2011.
Body and Gender, Soul and Reason in Late Antiquity. Variorum collected studies series, CS978. Farnham; Burlington, VT: Ashgate

For a review of the book see BMCR 2012.02.16

Clark, John R. 1998.
Looking at Lovemaking: Constructions of Sexuality in Roman Art 100 B.C. - A.D. 250. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Pp. 372.

Cohick, Lynn H. 2009.
Women in the World of the Earliest Christians:Illuminating Ancient Ways of Life. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. Pp. 350.

Cooper, Kate M. 2007.
"Closely Watched Households: Visibility, Exposure and Private Power in the Roman Domus." In Past and Present 197 (November): 3-33.

Cooper, Kate M. 1996.
The Virgin and the Bride: Idealized Womanhood in Late Antiquity. Cambridge, MA, London, England: Harvard University Press.

Copley, Frank O. 1981.
Exclusus Amator: a study in Latin love poetry. Chico, CA: Scholars Press.

Cornell, T. and K. Lomas (eds). 1997.
Gender and Ethnicity in Ancient Italy. London: Accordia Research Institute.

Corrigan, Kirsty. 2013.
Virgo to Virago: Medea in the Silver Age. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing .

For a review of this book, see Digressus 14 (2014) 9-20.

Culham, Phyllis. 1997.
"Did Roman Women Have an Empire?" In Inventing Ancient Culture: Historicism, Periodization, and the Ancient World. Edited by Mark Golden and Peter Toohey. New York: Routledge. For a review of the entire book and the articles it contains, see BMCR 1997.11.01.

Culham argues that the establishment of empire and the emperorship by Augustus did introduce a new period in Roman women's history. Augustus' marriage legislation bestowed increased public status on elite women by linking their sexual morality to their husband's status. As a result, elite women gained more personal freedom. Elite women who followed the lead of Livia by becoming public benefactors were awarded titles such as honesta and honestissima in inscriptions. Though elite women were circumscribed by Augustus' legislation in some areas, new opportunities in other spheres were opened to them.

Cyrino, Monica S.. 2010.
Aphrodite. Gods and Heroes of the Ancient World. London/New York: Routledge, 2010.

For a review of this book seeBMCR 2011.01.14

Daehner, Jens, (ed.). 2007.
The Herculaneum Women. History, Context, Identities. Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum. Pp. xiv, 178; maps 5, figs. passim. ISBN 978-0-89236-882-2.

For a review of this book and a list of the articles it contains, see BMCR 2008.09.20.

D´Ambra, Eve. 1993.
"The Cult of Virtues and the Funerary Relief of Ulpia Epigone." In Roman Art in Context: An Anthology. Edited by Eve D'Ambra, 104-114. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-781808-4. 247 pp., 97 b/w. Glossary, bibliography.

The funerary relief of Ulpia Epigone from the late first/early second century CE shows Ulpia reclining, half nude, on a kline. Ulpia's woolbasket is placed at her feet. D'Ambra investigates why a respectable Roman matron would have herself represented in a way that emphasizes her sexuality and fertility. The pose connects Ulpia to the goddess Venus and alludes to her attributes of physical grace as well as to her virtuous pursuit of wool-working, a sign of matronal moral rectitude.

D´Ambra, Eve. 1993.
Private Lives, Imperial Virtues: the frieze of the Forum Transitorium in Rome. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

D´Ambra, Eve, (ed.). 1993.
Roman Art in Context: An Anthology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 0-13-781808-4. 247 pp., 97 b/w. Glossary, bibliography.

This volume contains several articles pertaining to Roman women: Susan Wood, "Alcestis on Roman Sarcophagi"; Eve D'Ambra, "The Cult of Virtues and the Funerary Relief of Ulpia Epigone"; Natalie Boymel Kampen, "Social Status and Gender in Roman Art: The Case of the Saleswoman"; Mary T. Boatwright, "The City Gate of Plancia Magna in Perge."

D´Ambra, Eve. 2007.
Roman Women. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dasen, Veronique and Thomas Spath, edd. 2010.
Children, Memory, & Family Identity in Roman Culture. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

Beryl Rawson, "Degrees of Freedom: Vernae and Junian Latins in the Roman familia," p. 196.

Davies, Glenys. 2005.
"On Being Seated: gender and body language in Hellenistic and Roman Art." In Body Language in the Greek and Roman Worlds. Edited by Douglas Cairns, 215-238. Swansea, England: The Classical Press of Wales.

Davies applies modern theories of body language to interpret seated figures. While Roman men are posed in seated postures that assert superiority and authority, Roman women are posed seated in a variety of postures, ranging from asserting dominance, "sexual confidence...with a degree of matronly modesty," self-reserve, and defensiveness.

Davies, Glenys. 1985.
"The Significance of the Handshake Motif in Classical Funerary Art." In American Journal of Archaeology 89: 627-640 (plus illustrations).

DeFelice, John. 2001.
Roman Hospitality: The Professional Women of Pompeii. Warren Center, PA: Shangri-La Publications. Pp. 306. ISBN 0-9677201-7-6.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2002.06.33.

Denzey, Nicola. 2007.
The Bone Gatherers: The Lost Worlds of Early Christian Women. Boston: Beacon Press. Pp. xxi, 290. ISBN 9780807013083.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2008.09.04.

De Ricci, Seymour. May 11, June 8, 1904.
"A Latin Deed of Manumission (A.D. 221) ." In Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology 26:145-152; 185-196.

Deroux, Carl (ed). 2010.
Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History. Bruxelles: Éditions Latomus.

Of particular interest are the following chapters: R.Moore, "Roman Women in the Castra: Who’s in Charge Here" 49; B. J. Kavanagh, "The Marriages, Motives and Legacy of Vistilia" 271; L. Foubert, "Literary Constructions of Female Identities: the Parallel Lives of Julio-Claudian Women in Tacitus’ Annals" 344. For a review of this book see BMCR 2011.07.39.

Dillon, Sheila. 2010.
The Female Portrait Statue in the Greek World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2010.07.55.

Dixon, Suzanne. 1992.
The Roman Family. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Dixon, Suzanne. 2001.
Reading Roman Women: sources, genres and real life
. London: Duckworth.

Dixon, Suzanne, ed. 2001.
Childhood, Class and Kin in the Roman World
. London and New York: Routledge.

Dixon, Suzanne. 2003.
"Roman Women: Following the Clues." In BBC Ancient History. BBC online.

Dolansky, Fanny. 2012.
"Playing With Gender: Girls, Dolls and Adult Ideals in the Roman World." In Classical Antiquite 31.2:256-292.

Donahue, John F. 2004.
"Junia Rustica of Cartima: Female Munificence in the Roman West." In Latomus 63.4: 873-891.

du Plessis, Paul J. (ed). 2004.
New Frontiers: Law and Society in the Roman World. Edinburgh: University Press.

Of particular note are the chapters in Part 2 on conubium by Saskia Roselaar and on women in business by Eva Jakab. For a review of this book see BMCR 2013.09.36.

Dutsch, Dorota. 2008.
Feminine Discourses in Roman Comedy: on Echoes and Voices. Oxford: University Press.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2009.04.37.

Edlund-berry, Ingrid E.M. 1994.
"Whether Goddess, Priestess, or Worshipper: Considerations of Female Deities and Cults in Roman Religion." In Festschrift in Honor of Gösta Säflund, Opus Mixtum. Acta Instituti Romani Regni Sueciae, series in 8s, vol. 21. 25-33. Stockholm.

Edmunds, Susan, Prudence Jones, Gregory Nagy. 2004.
Text and Textile: An Introduction to Wool-Working for Readers of Greek and Latin. DVD. Department of Classics, Rutgers University.

This DVD presents illustrations of wool-working (carding, spinning, weaving) found on vase paintings, reliefs, etc. It includes demonstrations of drop-spindle spinning and weaving on a warp-weighted loom and discusses the social and economics of textile production.

Edmondson, Jonathan and Alison Keith, edd. 2008.
Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture. Toronto/Buffalo: University of Toronto Press. Pp. xvii, 370; plates 56 p. ISBN 978-0-8020-9319-6.

For a review of this book and a list of the articles it contains, see BMCR 2008.08.42.

Edwards, Catherine. 2007.
"A Feminine Ending?." In Death in Ancient Rome: Chapter 7 (179-206). New Haven & London: Yale University Press.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2007.12.28

Eisler, Riane. 1987.
The Chalice and the Blade: Our History, Our Future. San Francisco: Harper and Row Publishers.

Engels, Donald. April 1980.
"The Problem of Female Infanticide in the Greco-Roman World." In Classical Philology 75.2:112-120.

Engels explains why the ratio of men to women may be inaccurate, and why calculations of the deceased's age can be inaccurate. He focuses upon categorizing skeletal remains of ancient Greeks and Romans. He points out that the current ways for one to estimate age and sex have been inaccurate. For example, smaller skeletal specimens are more likely to be tossed out and not regarded. Data may be skewed because elite families are more likely to be buried.

Erker, Darja Sterbenc. 2011.
"Gender and Roman Funeral Ritual." In Memory and Mourning: Studies on Roman Death, pp. 40-60. Edited by Valerie M. Hope and Janet Huskinson. Oxford/Oakville, CT: Oxbow Books.

For a review of the collection of essays, see BMCR 2011.10.59.

Evans, John K. 1991.
War, Women and Children in Ancient Rome. London and New York: Routledge.

Evans-Grubbs, Judith. 1993.
"'Marriage More Shameful Than Adultery': slave-mistress relationships, 'mixed marriages,' and late Roman law." In Phoenix 47 (1993) 2.125-154.

Fantham, Elaine. 2006.
Julia Augusti: The Emperor's Daughter. London and New York: Routledge.

Fantham, Elaine. 1989.
"Mime, the Missing Link in Roman Literary History." CW 82: 153-163.

Fantham, Elaine, Helene Peet Foley, Natalie Boymel Kampen, Sarah B. Pomeroy, and H. Alan Shapiro. 1994.
Women in the Classical World: Image and Text. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509862-5. 430 pp., 136 b/w. Chronology, map, indices.

The authors use artistic, literary, and documentary evidence to reconstruct the lives of women in Greece and Rome from the Greek Archaic Age through the Later Empire of Rome. Excursive chapters cover Spartan women, medicine as the "proof" of anatomy, Etruscan women, the "New Woman" of Rome, and the women of Pompeii. The volume analyzes poetry, vase painting, coins, and literary, legal, and medical texts to explore issues of social class, creativity, sexuality, and political involvement.

Faraone, Christopher A.. April 2003.
"When Spells Worked Magic." In Archaeology Magazine.

Faraone discusses the role of magic in the lives of Greek and Roman women. Women practiced witchcraft to cast spells, or were the objects of magical curses or love spells. In addition to providing translations of Latin and Greek sources, including papyri from Roman Egypt, Faraone includes a number of illustrations of magical effigies, papyrus spells, and the (then) recently found lead canisters from the Piazza Euclid in Rome containing voodoo dolls; one of the canisters retained the thumbprint of the witch.

Faraone, Christopher A., Laura K. McClure (eds.). 2006.
Prostitutes & Courtesans in the Ancient World. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.

Relevant essays are: Thomas McGinn, "Zoning Shame in the Roman City"; Marsha McCoy, "The Politics of Prostitution: Clodia, Cicero, and Social Order in the Late Roman Republic"; Kelly Olson, "Matrona and Whore: Clothing and Definition in Roman Antiquity"; Sharon L. James, "A Courtesan's Choreography: Female Liberty and Male Anxiety at the Roman Dinner Party"; Anne Duncan, "Infamous Performers: Comic Actors and Female Prostitutes in Rome." For a review of this book see BMCR 2006.05.40.

Feijfer, Jane. 2008.
Roman Portraits in Context. Image and Context; v. 2. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Of particular interest is Part III : "The Empress and her Fellow Elite Women." For a review of this book see BMCR 2009.11.10

Feldner, Birgit. 17 September, 2002.
"Women's Exclusion from the Roman Officium." In forum historiae iuris.

Ferri, Rolando, ed. 2003.
Octavia: A Play Attributed to Seneca. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2005.02.27

Finley, Moses I. 1965.
"The Silent Women of Rome." In Horizon 7.1: 57-64; reprinted in Sexuality and Gender in the Classical World. Edited by Laura K. McClure, 147-160. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.

Flemming, Rebecca. 2000.
Medicine and the Making of Roman Women. Gender, Nature, and Authority from Celsus to Galen. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

For a review of this book see PubMed Central and Project MUSE.

Flory, Marleen B. 1996.
"Dynastic Ideology, the Domus Augusta, and Imperial Women: A Lost Statuary Group in the Circus Flaminius." In Transactions of the American Philological Association 126: 287-306.

Flory, Marleen B. 1995.
"The Deification of Roman Women." In The Ancient History Bulletin 9.3-4:127-134.

Flory, Marleen B. 1993.
"Livia and the History of Public Honorific Statues for Women in Rome." In Transactions of the American Philological Association 123: 287-308.

Fögen, Thorsten and Mireille M. Lee (eds.). 2009.
Bodies and Boundaries in Graeco-Roman Antiquity. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110212525.

For a review of this book, see BMCR 2011.01.19.

Fögen, Thorsten. 2007.
"Statius' Roman Penelope: Exemplarity, Praise and Gender in Silvae 3.5. Philologus 151: 256-72.

Forbis, Elizabeth P. 1990.
"Women's Public Image in Italian Honorary Inscriptions." In American Journal of Archaeology 3.4. 493-512.

The personal and domestic virtues of women are often described on their tombstones. However, Forbis examines Italian honorary inscriptions in the first three centuries CE and shows that members of Italian municipalities represented aristocratic women in a very different manner from the formulaic way they are portrayed on epitaphs. Honorary inscriptions emphasize the public generosity and wealth of elite women who became public benefactresses. Forbis observes that in the later decades of this period, as the number of male benefactors decreased, the importance of female benefactors increased.

Foxhall, Lin. 2013.
Studying Gender in Classical Antiquity. Key themes in ancient history. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521557399.

For a review of this book and its contents see BMCR 2014.05.23.

Frangoulidis, Stavros. 2008.
Witches, Isis and Narrative: Approaches to Magic in Apuleius' Metamorphoses. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.

For a review of this book and its contents see BMCR 2009.06.33.

Fraschetti, Augusto, (ed.). 2001.
Roman Women. Translated by Linda Lappin. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

For a list of the articles and a review see BMCR 2001.10.13.

French, Valerie. 1986, 1987.
"Midwives and Maternity Care in the Roman World." In Rescuing Creusa: New Methodological Approaches to Women in Antiquity. Edited by Marilyn Skinner, 69-84. Helios New Series 13 (2). Lubbock, TX: Texas Technical University Press.

French, Valerie. Autumn 1990.
"What is Central for the Study of Women in Antiquity?" In Helios 17.2: 213-220.

Fulkerson, Laurel. Spring 2003.
"Chain(ed) Mail: Hypermestra and the Dual Readership of Heroides 14." In Transactions of the American Philological Association 133.1: 123-146.

Gardner, Hunter H. Spring 2007.
"Ariadne's Lament: The Semiotic Impulse of Catullus 64." In Transactions of the American Philological Association 137.1: 147-179.

Gardner, Hunter H. 2008.
"Women's Time in the Remedia Amoris." In Latin Elegy and Narrativity: Fragments of a Story. Edited by G. Liveley and P. Salzman-Mitchell. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

Gardner, Hunter H. 2013.
Gendering Time in Augustan Love Elegy. Oxford: University Press.

Gardner, Jane F. 1986.
Women in Roman Law and Society. London: Croom Helm.

Gardner, Jane F. 1998.
The Family and Familia in Roman Law and Life. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Gardner, Jane F. and Thomas Wiedemann. 1991.
The Roman Household: a sourcebook. London & New York: Routledge.

Garlick, B., S. Dixon and P. Allen, (eds). 1992.
Stereotypes of Women in Power. Historical Perspectives and Revisionist Views. New York: Greenwood Press (Contributions in Women's Studies 125).

Garman, Alex G. 2008.
The Cult of the Matronae in the Roman Rhineland: An Historical Evaluation of the Archaeological Evidence. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press.

For a review of the book, see BMCR 2009.10.37

Garrett, Alice.
"Teaching Latin with a Feminist Consciousness." In "Showcase" at Classics Technology Center.

Alice Garrett, Haverford High School, Havertown, PA. Garrett's paper examines the way feminism is transforming classical studies. Garrett offers her opinion on three popular Latin textbooks and the need for these texts to achieve "gender balance" in their treatment of men and women in the instruction they provide on learning Latin and learning about Roman world.

George, Michele. 2003.
"Race, Racism, and Status: Images of Black Slaves in the Roman Empire." In Syllecta Classica 14. 161-185, 8 b/w.

George points out that images of black slaves evoked exotic locales and signified their masters' wealth and social status. Black slaves were also thought to have apotropaic powers. Though the article is on black slaves generally, one of the illustrations shows black slaves who may be women.

George, Michele, ed. 2005.
The Roman Family in the Empire: Rome, Italy, and Beyond. New York: Oxford University Press.

For a review of the book, see BMCR 2009.01.38

Gillison, Linda W. 2003.
"Agrippina laborum periculorum socia." In Syllecta Classica 14.121-141.

Gillison analyzes Tacitus' presentation of Agrippina and how he uses his depiction of Thusnelda and other German women as comparanda to represent the maternal and wifely virtues valued during the Republic. In doing so, Tacitus dissociates Agrippina from her father-in-law Tiberius in order to link her more closely to her husband.

Ginsburg, Judith. 2006.
Representing Agrippina: Constructions of Female Power in the Early Roman Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press for the American Philological Association.

Glendenning, Ellen. 2010
"Heroic Female Death in Tacitus’ Annals 14 and 15." In Zero to Hero, Hero to Zero: In Search of the Classical Hero. Edited by Lydia Langwerf and Cressida Ryan. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

This essay focuses on the funerary altar of Julia Secunda and Cornelia Tyche. For a review of the book, see BMCR 2011.12.42.

Gold, Barbara. 1998.
"The House I Live In Is Not My Own: women's bodies in Juvenal's Satires." In Arethusa 3: 369-86.

Gold, Barbara K. 2011.
"Gender Fluidity and Closure in Perpetua’s Prison Diary." In EuGeStA: Journal on Gender Studies in Antiquity, issue 1. Edited by Jacqueline Fabre-Serris and Judith Hallett.

Gordon, Arthur E. 1983.
Illustrated Introduction to Latin Epigraphy. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.

Gordon, Pamela. 2012.
The Invention and Gendering of Epicurus. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2012.12.23.

Grebe, Sabine. 2003.
"Marriage and Exile: Cicero's letters to Terentia." In Helios 30: 127-46.

Green, C.M.C. 2006.
Roman Religion and the Cult of Diana at Aricia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2007.10.49.

Greene, Ellen. 1998.
The Erotics of Domination: Male Desire and the Mistress in Latin Love Poetry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Greene, Ellen and Ronnie Ancona, (eds). 2005.
Gendered Dynamics in Latin Love Poetry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

For a review of this book and a list of the articles it contains see BMCR 2007.12.40.

Grubbs , Judith. 2002.
Women and the Law in the Roman Empire: a sourcebook on marriage, divorce, and widowhood. London & NY: Routledge.

Gutzwiller, Kathryn. 2004.
"Gender and Inscribed Epigram: Herennia Procula and the Thespian Eros." In Transactions of the American Philological Association 134: 383-418.

Gutzwiller argues persuasively that the Herennia Procula who wrote and signed an elegiac couplet in Greek about Praxiteles' statue of Eros on a marble statue base at Thespiae is a well-educated writer and the same Herennia Procula who, as a member of the wealthy Roman family well-known in Thessalonica through the 3rd century CE, the gens Herennia, dedicated columns in 66/67 CE to a local religious guild in memory of her father.

Habinek, Thomas. 1998.
The Politics of Latin Literature: Writing, identity, and empire in ancient Rome. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Haines-Eitzen, Kim. 2000.
“ Girls Trained for Beautiful Writing: Female Scribes in Roman Antiquity.” In Guardians of Letters: Literacy, Power, and the Transmitters of Early Christian Literature, pp. 41-52. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press

Scholarly discussion of scribes has focused on male scribes, in some part because scholars are unaware that evidence exists for the role of female scribes inproducing, transmitting, and disseminating ancient literature. Imperial textual and epigraphic evidence for female scribes (scriba, libraria) indicates that “they almost invariably work for female masters.” Both freedwomen and slave women served as scribes and in addition to clerical work, engaged in the copying of manuscripts; there is no evidence, however, of their holding official scribal positions; with one possible exception they all were employed privately. Though pre-Christian references to Roman female scribes is scarce, with the rise of Christian monasticism, there is much clearer evidence for female scribes and the type of work they did, which included copying of Christian texts.

Hallett, Judith P. 1984.
Fathers and Daughters in Roman Society: Women and the elite family. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Hallett, Judith P. 1973.
"The Role of Women in Roman Elegy: Counter-Cultural Feminism." In Arethusa 6: 103-24.

Hallett, Judith P. 1989.
"Women as 'Same' and 'Other' in Classical Roman Elite." In Helios 16: 59-78.

Hallett, Judith P. 1999.
“Women in the Ancient Roman World." In Women´s Roles in Ancient Civilizations. Edited by Bella Vivante, 259-289. Westport, CT and London: Greenwood Press.

Hallett, Judith P. 2011.
"Scenarios of Sulpiciae: moral discourses and immoral verses." In EuGeStA: Journal on Gender Studies in Antiquity, issue 1. Edited by Jacqueline Fabre-Serris and Judith Hallett.

Hallett, Judith P. 2013.
"Intersections of Gender and Genre: Sexualizing the Puella in Roman comedy, lyric and elegy." In EuGeStA: Journal on Gender Studies in Antiquity, issue 3. Edited by Jacqueline Fabre-Serris and Judith Hallett.

Hallett, Judith P. and Marilyn B. Skinner. 1997.
Roman Sexualities. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Harlow, Mary, (ed). 2012.
Dress and Identity. Oxford: Archeopress.

Contents: 1) Dress and Identity: an Introduction (Mary Harlow); 2) Costume as Text (Zvezdana Dode); 3) Veiling the Spartan Woman (Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones); 4) Dressing to Please Themselves: Clothing Choices for Roman Women (Mary Harlow); 5) The Archaeology of Adornment and the Toilet in Roman Britain and Gaul (Ellen Swift); 6) Dress and Cultural Identity in the Roman Empire (Ursula Rothe); 7) Investigating the Emperor’s Toga: Privileging Images on Roman Coins (Ray Laurence); 8) Anglo-Saxon Woman: Fame, Anonymity, Identity and Clothing (Gale R. Owen-Crocker); 9) Representing Hierarchy and Homosociality: Vestments and Gender in Medieval Scotland (Penelope Dransart); 10) Cosmetics and Perfumes in the Roman World: A Glossary (Susan Stewart); 11) The Social Life of Museum Textiles: Some Comments on the Late Antique and Early Medieval Collection in the Ure Museum at the University of Reading (Anthea Harris).

Harper, James. April, 1972.
"Slaves and Freedmen in Imperial Rome." In American Journal of Philology 93. 2: 341-342.

Harper discusses how short the average lifespan for the average Roman was, e.g. for a freedman it was about 25 years and for a slave 17 years. He notes that female slaves lived almost a year longer than their male counterparts.

Harris, W. V. 1999.
"Demography, Geography and the Sources of Roman Slaves." In The Journal of Roman Studies 89: 62-75.

Harris discusses the question of where large slave owners obtained new slaves. He particularly examines the theory of "self-replacement," that the birth rate of slaves was sufficiently high as to be a major source of new slaves. He points out some questions in establishing the fertility rate of slaves, e.g. how large the slave population was in any given period and in any section of the empire; what the ratio of male to female slaves was; whether there was a difference in mortality rate of male to female slave infants and children. He estimates that the slave percentage of the population was between 16 and 20 percent. He argues that the fertility of slave women was affected by several factors which undercut the theory of "self-replacement," such as that there was a longer period between pregnancies of slave women than the Roman women, due to nursing slave women nursing their children, during which time they were more likely not to conceive again. Furthermore, male slaves outnumbered females, and, as more male slaves were imported into the empire (there were more tasks for male slaves than female), the ratio between the sexes was skewed toward the male. The fact that slave owners tried seriously to encourage the fertility of slaves points to the weakness of the self-replacement theory. Harris concludes that the self-replacement theory is improbable in the "high Roman Empire."

Harvey, Brian K. 2004.
Roman Lives: ancient Roman life as illustrated by Latin inscriptions. Newburyport, MA: Focus.

Hejduk, Julia Dyson. 2012.
The Passion of Perpetua and Felicity. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199777570.

For a review of this book and its contents see BMCR 2013.01.58.

Heffernan, Thomas J. 2008.
Clodia: A Sourcebook. Oklahoma Series in Classical Culture v. 33. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Pp. 269. ISBN 9780806139074.

Hemelrijk, Emily A. 1999.
Matrona Docta: Educated Women in the Roman Elite from Cornelia to Julia Domna. London, NY: Routledge.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2002.07.32.

Hemelrijk, Emily A. 2004.
"City Patronesses in the Roman Empire." In Historia: Zeitschrift fur Alte Geschichte 53.2: 209-245.

Hemelrijk examines the role of women as city patronesses in terms of the nature and function of municipal patronage. She notes that this position is relatively rare in the western part of the Roman Empire, including northern Africa, and identifies 19 women of high rank (14 senatorial, 2 equestrian, 1 decurial). She discusses why a woman would be asked to hold this position, how she was chosen and the ramifications of her assent to it. She questions was it merely honorific or were there certain responsibilities and expectations? She considers how a woman negotiated attaining and filling so prominent a position in her community in light of the domesticity and reluctance for public display that a matrona, according to literary record, was traditionally supposed to embrace.

Hemelrijk, Emily A. 2004.
"Masculinity and Femininity in the Laudatio Turiae." In Classical Quarterly 54.1: 183-197.

Hemelrijk, Emily A. 2005.
“Priestesses of the Imperial Cult in the Latin West: Titles and Functions.” In L’Antiquité classique 74: 137-170.

Hemmelrijk discusses whether there is a difference between a flaminica and a sacerdos; the marital status of a flaminica; her selection or election and term of office; her duties in regard to the imperial cult; her social status and social mobility.

Hemelrijk, Emily A. 2007.
“Local Empresses: Priestesses of the Imperial Cult in the Cities of the Latin West.” In Phoenix 61. 3/4: 318-349 (2 B&W illustrations).

Focusing on the imperial female priesthoods, Hemelrijk argues that they are not modeled upon the flaminica Dialis of the Republic, as other scholars have assumed, but take the empress herself as their model. She discusses the relationship between Rome and towns re: these imperial female priesthoods, the rituals that these priestesses may have conducted, their priestly garb, and how these priestesses were visually represented.

Hemelrijk, Emily A. 2012.
"Fictive Motherhood and Female Authority in Roman Cities." In EuGeStA: Journal on Gender Studies in Antiquity, issue 2. Edited by Jacqueline Fabre-Serris and Judith Hallett.

Hemelrijk, Emily, Greg Woolf (ed.). 2013.
Women and the Roman City in the Latin West. Mnemosyne Supplements. History and Archaeology of Classical Antiquity, 360. Leiden; Boston: Brill. ISBN 9789004255944.

For a review of this book and its contents see BMCR 2014.05.60.

Henderson, John. Spring 2007.
"Bringing It All Back Home: Togetherness in Statius Silvae 3.5." In Arethusa 40. 2: 245-277. Special Issue: Statius' sSilvae and the Poetics of Intimacy. Guest editors Antony Augoustakis and Carole E. Newlands.

Hersch, Karen K. 2010.
The Roman Wedding: Ritual and Meaning in Antiquity. New York: Cambridge University Press.

For a review of this book and its contents see BMCR 2011.03.62.

Hersch, Karen K. 2009.
"Ethnicity and the Costume of the Roman Bride ." In Gender Identities in Italy in the First Millennium BC. Edited by Edward Herring and Kathryn Lomas. British Archaeological Reports. Oxford: Archaeopress.

Hersch, Karen K. Winter 2013-14.
"Introduction to the Roman Wedding: Two Case Studies." In The Classical Journal 109.2:223-232.

Hersch, Karen K. Spring 2007.
"Violentilla Victa ." In Arethusa 40. 2: 197-205. Special Issue: Statius's Silvae and the Poetics of Intimacy. Guest editors Antony Augoustakis and Carole E. Newlands.

Heyob, Sharon Kelly. 1975.
The Cult of Isis Among Women in the Greco-Roman World. Leiden: Brill.

Hoffer, Stanley E. 1999.
The Anxieties of Pliny the Younger. Atlanta: Scholars Press.

Holland, Lora L. 2008.
Diana Feminarum Tutela?: the Case of Noutrix Paperia.” In Collection Latomus, Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History 14: 95-115.

The article concerns the inscription by the nurse Paperia on a votive spearpoint, dedicated at Diana's sanctuary at Lake Nemi.

Holland, Lora L. 2008.
“Euclio’s Solitary Slave: Staphyla in Plautus’ Aulularia.” In New England Classical Journal (NECJ) 35.1: 21-30.

The article is about the role of the nurse Staphyla in Plautus' Aulularia.

Holleran, Claire. 2012.
Shopping in Ancient Rome: The Retail Trade in the Late Republic and the Principate. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199698219

For a review of this book and its contents see BMCR 2013.02.51.

Holloway, R. Ross. Winter 2013-2014.
"A Cover-up in Early Roman History: Fabia Minor and the Sextian-Licinian Reforms." In The Classical Journal 109.2:139-146.

Hope, Valerie M. 2011.
"Remembering to Mourn: Personal Mementos of the Dead in Ancient Rome." In Memory and Mourning: Studies on Roman Death, pp. 176-195. Edited by Valerie M. Hope and Janet Huskinson. Oxford/Oakville, CT: Oxbow Books.

The article focuses on the funerary inscription for Allia Potestas. For a review of the collection of essays, see BMCR 2011.10.59.

Hopkins, M.K. 1965.
"The Age of Roman Girls at Marriage ." In Population Studies 18.3: 309-327.

Hughes, Lisa A. July, 2007.
“Unveiling the Veil: Cultic, Status, and Ethnic Representations of Early Imperial Freedwomen.” In Material Religion 3.2: 218-241.

Huskinson, Janet. 2011.
"Bad Deaths, Better Memories." In Memory and Mourning: Studies on Roman Death, pp. 113-125. Edited by Valerie M. Hope and Janet Huskinson. Oxford/Oakville, CT: Oxbow Books.

The article focuses on the mother-daughter altar for Julia Secunda and Cornelia Tyche. For a review of the collection of essays, see BMCR 2011.10.59.

James, Sharon L. 2001.
"The Economics of Roman Elegy: Voluntary Poverty, the Recusatio, and the Greedy Girl." In American Journal of Philology 122. 223-53.

James, Sharon L. 2003.
Learned Girls and Male Persuasion: Gender and Reading in Roman Love Elegy. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.

James, Sharon L. Spring 2003.
"Her Turn to Cry: The Politics of Weeping in Roman Love Elegy." In Transactions of the American Philological Association 133.1: 99-122.

James, Sharon L. 2005.
"Effeminate Elegy, Comic Women, and the Gender of Language: Recovering a Female Voice in Latin." Paper contributed to APA Seminar "The Gender of Latin." Boston.

James, Sharon L. and Sheila Dillon (eds.) 2012.
A Companion to Women in the Ancient World. Malden, Ma., Oxford, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.

For a review of the book, see CJ~Online 2013.05.03.

Johnson, Marguerite and Terry Ryan. 2005.
Sexuality in Greek and Roman Society and Literature. New York: Routledge.

This sourcebook of translated poetry, inscriptions, and documents provides a variety of texts through which students may explore the nature of sexuality in antiquity. A short but helpful introduction gives a sociological background to sexuality in Greece and Rome. Texts are arranged under the following topics: the divine sphere; beauty; marriage; prostitution; same-sex relationships; sex and violence; anxiety and repulsion; aids and handbooks. The book provides a valuable glossary of Roman sexual terms (e.g. adulterium, cultus; cinaedus). There are eleven BW photos, primarily evidence for Greek sexuality.

Jones, Prudence J. 2006.
Cleopatra: A Sourcebook. Norman OK: Oklahoma University Press. 345 pp. Paper.

Joshel, Sandra R. 1992a.
"The Body Female and the Body Politic: Livy's Lucretia and Verginia." In Pornography and Representation in Greece and Rome. Edited by Amy Richlin, 112-30. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Reprinted in Sexuality and Gender in the Classical World. Edited by Laura K. McClure, 163-187. Oxford: Blackwell.

Joshel, Sandra R. Autumn, 1995.
"Female Desire and the Discourse of Empire: Tacitus's Messalina." In Signs 21.1: 50-82.

Joshel, Sandra R. 1992b.
Work, Identity, and Legal Status at Rome: a study of the occupational inscriptions. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Joshel, Sandra R. and Sheila Murnaghan (eds.). 1989.
Women and Slaves in Greco-Roman Culture: Differential Equations. London and New York: Routledge.

The anthology offers 14 valuable essays on the topic; those focused on Roman women are: Saller's "Symbols of gender and status hierarchies in the Roman household," Rei's "Villains, wives, and slaves in the comedies of Plautus," Clark's "Women, slaves and the hierarchies of domestic violence: The family of St. Augustine," Connolly's "Mastering corruption: Constructions of identity in Roman oratory," Parker's "Loyal slaves and loyal wives," McCarthy's "Servitium amoris: Amor servitii." For a review see BMCR 1999.05.18.

Kajanto, Iiro. 1965.
The Latin Cognomina. Helsinki.

Kampen, Natalie Boymel. 2009.
Family Fictions in Roman Art: Essays on the Representation of Powerful People. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.


Kampen, Natalie Boymel. 1981.
Image and Status: Roman working women in Ostia. Berlin: Mann.

For epitaphs of working women, see also Women at Work.

Kampen, Natalie Boymel. 1993.
"Social Status and Gender in Roman Art: The Case of the Saleswoman." In Roman Art in Context: An Anthology. Edited by Eve D'Ambra, 115-132. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-781808-4. 247 pp., 97 b/w. Glossary, bibliography

Kampen explores the relation of gender and status in visual images of Roman working people to show how these interacted as determinants of visual images. She pays particular attention to visual imaging of Roman saleswomen to show how their social position helped shape their iconography in Roman art. She compares the different receptions of images of men's work and women's work: while images of men's work are plentiful and popular, enhancing the social status of the worker, women workers were seldom commemorated visually and their work tended to be either invisible or based on iconographies and models arising from role, gender and status. For epitaphs of working women, see Women at Work.

Kapparis, K. 2002.
Abortion in the Ancient World. London: Duckworth.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2003.01.35.

Keith, A. M. 2000.
Engendering Rome: Women in Latin Epic. New York: Cambridge University Press.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2000.06.23.

Keith, A. M. 2009.
"The Lay of the Land in Ovid’s Perseid (Met.4.610-5.249)." In Classical World 102.3 (Spring): 259-272.

Keith, Alison. 2008.
"Lament in Lucan's BELLVM CIVILE." In Lament: Studies in the Ancient Mediterranean and Beyond, pp. 233-257. Edited by Ann Suter. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.

The author discusses how Lucan fulfills the "audience's expectation of lamentation as a female genre, and . . . a wifely obligation. . . . " She concludes " . . . .Lucan affirms the power of women's lamentation in ancient Rome and the central role of Cornelia in the commemoration of Pompey." For a review of this chapter (11) and the entire book, see BMCR 2008.10.26.

Keith, Alison. 2011.
"Lycoris Galli/Volumnia Cytheris: a Greek Courtesan in Rome ." In EuGeStA: Journal on Gender Studies in Antiquity, issue 1. Edited by Jacqueline Fabre-Serris and Judith Hallett.

Keith, Alison. 2013.
"Sexus muliebris in Flavian Epic." In EuGeStA: Journal on Gender Studies in Antiquity, issue 3. Edited by Jacqueline Fabre-Serris and Judith Hallett.

Keppie, Lawrence. 1991.
Understanding Roman Inscriptions. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

King, K. L., ed. 1997.
Women and Goddess Traditions in Antiquity and Today. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.

Kleiner, Diana E. E. 2005.
Cleopatra and Rome. Cambrideg, MA, and London: The Belknap Press/Harvard University Press.

Kleiner, Diana E. E. and Susan B. Matheson (eds.). 1996.
I, Claudia: women in ancient Rome. New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery. Distributed by the University of Texas Press, Austin.

This 1996 exhibition was the first comprehensive overview of the lives of Roman women as reflected in Roman art. The catalogue contains a number of essays and B&W illustrations of exhibit items, and some supplementary color illustrations. The essays are annotated under the authors' names in the Companion bibliography and include: Natalie B. Kampen, "Gender Theory in Roman Art"; Diana E. E. Kleiner, "Imperial Women as Patrons of the Arts in the Early Empire"; Klaus Fittschen, "Courtly Portraits of Women in the Era of the Adoptive Emperors (AD 98-180) and their Reception in Roman Society"; Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, "Engendering the Roman House"; Susan Treggiari, "Women in Roman Society:' Gordon Williams, "Representations of Roman women in Literature"; Susan B. Matheson, "The Divine Claudia: Women as Goddesses in Roman Art." The catalog also includes genealogy charts (Augustus and the Julio-Claudian dynasty; Trajan, Hadrian, and the Antonine dynasty; and the Severan dynasty); a glossary, suggestions for further reading; and a selected bibliography.

Kleiner, Diana E. E. and Susan B. Matheson (eds.). 2000.
I, Claudia II: Women in Roman art and society. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Volume II provides additional essays for the significant 1996 exhibition on Roman women. The essays are illustrated with a number of b/w photos. A selected bibliography is included. The essays are annotated under the authors' names in the Companion bibliography and include: "Her Parents Gave Her the Name Claudia," Diana E. E. Kleiner and Susan B. Matheson; "Livia to Helena: Women in Power, Women in the Provinces," Cornelius C. Vermeule III; "Livia: Portrait and Propaganda, " Rolf Winkes; "Family Ties: Mothers and Sons in Elite and Non-Elite Roman Art," Diana E. E. Kleiner; "Just Window Dressing? Imperial Women as Architectural Sculpture," Mary T. Boatwright; "Mortals, Empresses, and Earth goddesses: Demeter and Persephone in Public and Private Apotheosis," Susan Wood; "Nudity and Adornment in Female Portrait Sculpture of the Second Century AD," Eve D'Ambra; "Jewelry for the Unmarried," Andrew Oliver; "The Elder Claudia: Older Women in Roman Art," Susan B. Matheson; "Marriage Egyptian Style," Diana Delia; "Widows Too Young in their Widowhood," Ann Ellis Hanson.

Kleiner, Diana E. E. 1987.
"Women and Family Life on Roman Imperial Funerary Altars." In Latomus 46: 545-554.

Knapp, Robert . 2011.
Invisible Romans. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

For a review see BMCR 2012.07.03.

Knorr, Ortwin. Spring 2006.
"Horace's Ship Ode (Odes 1.14) in Context: A Metaphorical Love-Triangle." In Transactions of the American Philological Association 136.1: 149-169.

Koloski-Ostrow, Ann Olga and Claire L. Lyons. 1997.
Naked Truths: Women, Sexuality and Gender in Classical Art and Archaeology. London/New York: Routledge.

For a review see BMCR 1999.03.03.

Kokkinos, Nikos. 1992.
Antonia Augusta: Portrait of a Great Roman Lady. London: Routledge.

Kondoleon, Christine, and Phoebe C. Segal (eds.) . 2011.
Aphrodite and the Gods of Love. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts Publications.

Kraemer, Ross S. 1992.
Her Share of the Blessings: Women's Religions Among Pagans, Jews, and Christians in the Greco-Roman World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kraemer, Ross S. 1988.
Maenads, Martyrs, Matrons, Monastics: a sourcebook on women's religions in the Greco-Roman world. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.

Kraemer, Ross Shepard. 2010.
Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kraemer, Ross S. and Mary R. D'Angelo. 1999.
Women & Christian Origins. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

Kraemer, Ross S. 2004.
Women's Religions in the Greco-Roman World: a sourcebook. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

Kunst, Christiane . 2005.
"Ornamenta Uxoria. Badges of Rank or Jewellery of Roman Wives?" In Medieval History Journal 8. 1: 127-142.

This article aims at a critical assessment of Roman jewellery and its social function. The literary sources in general take a moralising stance towards jewellery and the external appearance of women, particularly of those from families of the nobility. An analysis of legal and pictorial evidence shows that the ornamenta uxoria had more than a decorative function. They clearly indicated wealth, rank and merit. Furthermore, a change of function from republican to imperial times can be detected: during the republic, a noblewoman's ornamenta were indicative of the status of her family (gens). Later, in imperial times, women were allowed ornamenta for individual merits (motherhood being first among them).

Laes, Christian. 2011 (English translation; Dutch original 2006).
Children in the Roman Empire: Outsiders Within. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

The author notes early on (p. 2) that girls are absent in the sources, though he has tried to represent them where possible. He directs the reader to the chapters (5 and 6) on labor and sexuality, but there too they are hardly present. Chapter 3 on Early Childhood includes information about the women --mothers, nurses, and midwives -- central to the early existence of a Roman child. For a review see BMCR 2011.10.46.

LaFollette, Laetitia. 1994, 2001.
"The Costume of the Roman Bride." In The World of Roman Costume. Edited by Judith Lynn Sebesta and Larissa Bonfante, 54-64, 6 bw. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-13854-2.

La Follette analyzes in detail the elements of the Roman bridal costume: tunica recta, flammeum, and the bridal coiffure. As the Vestal Virgin also dressed her hair in a manner similar to the bride's, La Follette examines portrait heads of Vestals to reconstruct the coiffure. La Follette demonstrates how all elements of the bridal costume are connected with the Flaminica Dialis and the Vestal Virgins.

Langlands, Rebecca. 2006.
Sexual Morality in Ancient Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. viii, 399.

The book is notable for its close study of the range of meanings of pudicitia, its focus on women as moral subjects in Latin literature, and its use of illustrative texts from Valerius Maximus.

Lateiner, Donald J. 2013
Gendered and Gendering Insults and Compliments in the Latin Novels." In EuGeStA: Journal on Gender Studies in Antiquity, issue 3. Edited by Jacqueline Fabre-Serris and Judith Hallett.

Leach, Eleanor Winsor. 2007.
"Claudia Quinta (Pro Caelio 34) and an Altar to Magna Mater." In Dictynna 4: 1-12.

Leach, Eleanor Winsor . 2008.
"Hypermestra's Querela: Coopting the Danaids in Horace Ode 3.11 and in Augustan Rome." In Classical World 102.1.

Lefkowitz, Mary R. and Maureen B. Fant. 2005.
Women's Life in Greece and Rome. A Source Book in Translation. 3d. ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8310-5. 420 pp. 22 b/w plates.

The source book is comprised of 452 readings that illuminate the lives of women of Greece and Rome, from the sixth century BCE through the late fourth century CE. The selections are arranged in broad themes: Women's Voices, Men's Opinions, Philosophers on the Role of Women, Legal Status in the Greek World, Legal Status in the Roman World, Public Life, Public Life, Occupations, Medicine and Anatomy, Religion. There are sub-topics within each theme. Generally Greek and Roman sources are grouped together. The collection includes Christian sources. Notes on the selections, bibliography, and indices are in the back of the book. The third edition includes 73 additional sources, with notes, in an appendix keyed to the themes in women's lives, and an updated bibliography. Selections from the second edition are posted at Diotima.

Lelis, Arnold A., William A. Percy, and Beert C. Verstraete. 2003.
The Age of Marriage in Ancient Rome. Lewiston, Queenston, Lampeter: The Edwin Mellen Press.

For a review, see BMCR 2006.05.29

Leeming, David. 2014.
Medusa: In the Mirror of Time. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 9781780230955.

For a review of the book and its contents, see BMCR 2014.08.09.

Levick, Barbara. 2007.
Julia Domna, Syrian Empress. London and New York: Routledge.

Levick, Barbara. 2014.
Faustina I and II: Imperial Women of the Golden Age. Oxford: University Press.

For a review of this book and its contents, see BMCR 2014.07.32.

Levin-Richardson, Sarah. February/March 2013.
"Futata sum Hic: Female subjectivity and Agency in Pompeian Sexual Graffiti." In The Classical Journal 108.3: 319-345.

Lindheim, Sara H. 2008.
Mail and Female: Epistolary Narrative and Desire in Ovid's Heroides. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Loven, Lena L. 1998.
"Lanam Fecit: woolworking and female virtue." In Aspects of Women in Antiquity: proceedings of the First Nordic Symposium on Women's Lives in Antiquity. Goteborg, 12-15 June 1997. Edited by Lena L. Loven and Agneta Stromberg, pp. 85-95. Jonsered.

Loven, Lena Larsson and Agneta Stromberg, eds. 2010.
Ancient Marriage in Myth and Reality. Tyne & Wear, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

The volume contains thirteen articles under three headings: "I. Ancient Marriage in Myth, Legend, and Literature"; "II. Planning the Marriage, Wedding Ceremonies and Symbolism"; "III. Marriage in Etruscan, Greek and Roman Funerary Iconography." Among the contributors are Judith Evans-Grubbs, Karen K. Hersch, and Glenys Davies, as well as the editor Lena Larsson Loven.

MacLaughlan, Bonnie. Summer, 2006.
"Voices from the Underworld: The Female Body Discussed in Two Dialogues." In the Paedagogus section of Classical World 99.4: 423-433. This article has been reprinted with the kind permission of the editor of Classical World.

MacLaughlan, Bonnie, Judith Fletcher, eds.. 2007.
Virginity Revisited: Configurations of the Unpossessed Body. University of Toronto Press.

Maehle, Ingvar. n.d.
"Female Cult in the Struggle of the Orders." Department of History, University of Bergen.

Marshall, Anthony J. 1989.
"Ladies at Law: The Role of Women in the Roman Civil Courts." In Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History, edited by C. Deroux. Brussels: Latomus 206: 35-54.

Marshall, Anthony J. Spring 1990.
"Roman Ladies on Trial: The Case of Maesia of Sentinum." In Phoenix 44.1: 46-59.

Marshall examines the anecdote in Valerius Maximus (8.3.1) of Maesia who argued her own case in court in the late Republic and who became notorious for usurping a critical male role and violating the feminine norm of pudicitia. Marshall discusses her case as it pertains to the principle of women's exclusion from criminal quaestiones and why she defended herself rather than a male relative.

Marsilio, Maria S. 2012.
"Catullus 36: Love and Literary Criticism." In Latomus 338: 126-133.

Martin, Susan. 2006.
Latin II: Women of Rome "Private Lives and Public Personae." Kentucky Educational Television: Distance Learning, University of Tennessee.

McAuley, Mairéad. 2012.
" Matermorphoses: Motherhood and the Ovidian Epic." In EuGeStA: Journal on Gender Studies in Antiquity, issue 2. Edited by Jacqueline Fabre-Serris and Judith Hallett.

McAuslan, Ian and Peter Walcot (eds.). 1996.
Women in Antiquity: Greece and Rome Studies. New York: Oxford.

McClure, Laura K. (ed.) . 2002.
Sexuality and Gender in the Classical World: readings and sources. Oxford: Blackwell.

The author's introduction may be read online.

McCullough, Anna. 2008.
"Female Gladiators in Imperial Rome." In Classical World 101.2: 197-209.

McCullough argues that though literary references to female gladiators are sparse, there is reason to believe that women were fighting other women in the late Republic. Such women may have been primarily of social rank lower than equestrian, but the Senatus Consultum of 22 B.C. indicates that there was some concern that women of higher rank might also perform in the arena. Most literary references, however, occur during the period of Nero and the Flavians. McCullough argues that authors make such references in order to point out the lavishness and splendor of the games offered and to make moral comments on past and present Roman emperors and society. She notes that there is no attested Latin word for female gladiator (gladiatrix is a modern coinage) and no evidence that the women fought male gladiators.

McCune, Blanche Conger. Winter 2013-2014.
"Lucan's Militia Amoris: Elegiac Expectations in the Bellum Civile." In The Classical Journal 109.2:171-198.

McGinn, Thomas. 1991.
"Concubinage and the Lex Iulia on Adultery." In Transactions of the American Philological Association 121: 335-375.

McGinn, Thomas. 1999.
"Widows, Orphans and Social History." In Journal of Roman Archaeology 12:617-32.

McGinn, Thomas. 2004.
The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman World: a study of social history and the brothel. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Mclntosh, Gillian Elizabeth. 1997.
"Haec est illa meis multum cantata libellis: An Investigation of Female Personae in the Epigrams of Martial." A thesis submitted to the Department of Classics in confomity with the requirements of the degree of Master of Arts. Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 120 pp. PDF.

McLeod, Glenda. 1991.
Virtue and Venom. Catalogs of Women from Antiquity to the Renaissance. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-10206-0. 168 pp.

The literary genre "catalogs of women" presented women as types and contributed to the stereotyping of women in the popular imagination. Yet as cultural values associated with women changed, the catalogs also changed, and the genre could be used to oppose authority and voice women's minority opinion. This volume covers the catalogs of Homer, Hesiod, Semonides, Vergil, Ovid, Juvenal, Plutarch, St. Jerome, as well as medieval catalogs.

McManus, Barbara F. 1997.
Classics and Feminism: gendering the classics. New York and London: Twayne Publishers and Prentice Hall International.

McNamara, Jo Ann. 1998, 3d. ed.
"Matres patriae/ Matres Ecclesiae: Women of Rome." In Becoming Visible: Women in European History. Edited by Renate Bridenthal, Susan Mosher Stuard, Merry E. Wiesner, 76-103. Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Co. ISBN 0-395-79625-3. 1 b/w.

McNamara focuses on the changes in women's lives that occurred during the Roman empire as laws moderated Roman patriarchy and women gained control of their money and were able to establish themselves in positions of political influence. She also examines the role of women in religious innovations, including how women used Christianity as a way of attaining their social and political aspirations.

Merriam, Carol U. 2011.
"She who laughs best: Ovid, Ars Amatoria 3.279-90." In Latomus 70: 404-21.

Miles, Margaret M., ed. 2011.
Cleopatra: A Sphinx Revisited. Berkeley: University of California Press.

For a review see BMCR 2011.12.64

Milner, Kristina. 2006.
Gender, Domesticity, and the Age of Augustus: Inventing Private Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Moltesen, Mette and Anne Marie Nielsen. 2007.
Agrippina Minor. Life and Afterlife. Copenhagen: Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Pp. 248; ills. and figs. ISBN 978-87-7452-296-6.

Montserrat, Dominic. 2000.
“Reading Gender in the Roman World.” In Experiencing Rome: Culture, Identity and Power in the Roman Empire. Edited by Janet Huskinson. London and New York: Routledge.

Mucznik, Sonia. 1999.
"Roman Priestesses: the Case of Metilia Acte." In Assaph: Studies in Art History 4. 61-78. 10 b/w.

The sarcophagus of Metilia Acte, priestess of Magna Mater, and her husband Junius Euhodus was found at Ostia. Mucznik analyzes the dedicatory inscription to determine the duties of a priestess of the Magna Mater and the social significance of this position. She reasons that since holding this priestly office was a costly activity, Metilia probably enjoyed high social and economic status.

Mueller, Hans-Friedrich. 1998.
"Vita, Pudicitia, Libertas: Juno, Gender, and Religious Politics in Valerius Maximus." In Transactions of the American Philological Association 128:221-263.

Muich, Rebecca Marie. 2004.
"The Worship of Roman Divae: The Julio-Claudians to the Antonines." In fulfillment for the degree of Master of Arts, Graduate School, the University of Florida.

Munteanu, Dana LaCourse. 2011.
Emotion, Genre and Gender in Classical Antiquity. London: Bristol Classical Press.

For a review see BMCR 2012.01.04

Murnaghan, Sheila and Sandra R. Joshel, (eds.). 1999.
Women & Slaves in Greco-Roman Culture. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16229-7. 255 pp., bibliography

The anthology offers 14 valuable essays on the topic; those focused on Roman women are: Saller's "Symbols of gender and status hierarchies in the Roman household," Rei's "Villains, wives, and slaves in the comedies of Plautus," Clark's "Women, slaves and the hierarchies of domestic violence: The family of St. Augustine," Connolly's "Mastering corruption: Constructions of identity in Roman oratory," Parker's "Loyal slaves and loyal wives," McCarthy's "Servitium amoris: Amor servitii." For a review see BMCR 1999.05.18

Noreña, Carlos F. Fall-Winter 2007.
"Hadrian's Chastity." In Phoenix 61. 3/4: 296-317. Classical Association of Canada.

Ogden, Daniel. 2002.
Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds: A Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515123-2. 353 pp.

The sourcebook presents 300 translated texts from literary and documentary sources, dating from the Greek Archaic period through the end of the Roman Empire. Some Christian sources are included. Chapters include: Medea and Circe, Witches in Greek Literature, Witches in Latin Literature. Texts include forms of magic used by women, such as curses, oracles, voodoo dolls, amulets, and the like. Notes accompany each text. The volume contains a bibliography and indices.

Ohrman, Magdalena. 2008.
Varying Virtue. Mythological Paragons of Wifely Virtues in Roman Elegy. In Studia Graeca et Latina Lundensia 15. Lund: Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University.

For a review of this book, click on BMCR 2009-04-47.

Olson, K. 2009.
"Cosmetics in Roman Antiquity: Substance, Remedy, Poison." In Classical World 102.3 (Spring): 291-310.

Olson, K. 2008.
Dress and the Roman Woman: Self-Presentation and Society. London and New York: Routledge.

Osgood, Josiah. 2006.
"Nuptiae Iure Civili Congruae: Apuleius's Story of Cupid and Psyche and the Roman Law of Marriage." In Transactions of the American Philological Association 136: 415-441.

Osiek, Carolyn. 2008.
"Roman and Christian Burial Practices and the Patronage of Women." In Commemorating the Dead: Texts and Artifacts in Context. Edited by Laurie Brink, O.P. and Deborah Green, 243-270. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Parker, Holt. 2004.
"Why Were the Vestals Virgins? or The Chastity of Women and the Safety of the Roman State." In American Journal of Philology 125.4: 563-592; Appendix: Chronological list of punished Vestals, 593-595; Bibliography 595-601.

Drawing on anthropoligical study of witchcraft and the sacrificial victim, Parker offers some answers to the questions of why Vestals had to be virgins, why they were murdered at times of political crisis, and why they were murdered by being buried alive. His arguments are based on the fact that the Vestals represented, metonymically, the city of Rome and so in times of crisis they served as pharmakon/pharmakos. He argues that the punishment of Vestals and matronae as well as establishment of cults of chastity, were attempts, based in sympathetic magic and out of deep fear of woman as stranger, to ward off crises to the city, as their inviolability represented the inviolability of the community.

Perkins, Caroline A. Spring, 2011.
"The Figure of Elegy in Amores 3.1: Elegy as Puella, Elegy as Poeta, Puella as Poeta." In Classical World 104.3: 313-331.

Pharr, Clyde. February, 1939.
"Roman Legal Education." In The Classical Journal 34.5: 257-270.

While this article primarily traces the development of Roman legal education through Justinian, pages 268-270 discuss the reasons Roman writers gave why women were prohibited from practicing law and in particular Carfrania, who was notorious for bringing frequent litigation and pleading her own cases.

Plant, I. M. 2004.
Women Writers of Ancient Greece and Rome: an anthology. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Pomeroy, Sarah B. 1975.
Goddesses, Whores, Wives and Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity. New York: Schocken Books.

Pomeroy, Sarah B. 2007.
The Murder of Regilla: A Case of Domestic Violence in Antiquity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-02583-7.

Appia Annia Regilla Atilia Caucidia Tertulla (ca. 125-160 CE) was a member of one of the most prominent (socially, politically, financially) aristocratic families in 2nd century Rome and was related to the Emperor Hadrian. At age fifteen, she married Herodes Atticus (some twenty-four years her senior), one of the wealthiest men in the Roman Empire, a Greek, prominent philosopher and former tutor of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. Some twenty years later, Regilla died in mysterious circumstances, while eight months pregnant with her sixth child. Pomeroy uses an approach called "incident analysis, in which a single dramatic event such as a murder becomes a means of exploring social relations in the past" ( p. 7). Employing archaeological and epigraphical sources, literary references, political and social history and gender studies, Pomeroy tries to discover the causes leading to Regilla's murder and to picture the intimate life these two prominent persons negotiated. Although Herodes Atticus was charged and acquited, her murderer was never found.

Pomeroy, Sarah B. 2014.
Pythagorean Women: Their History and Writings. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9781421409566.

For a review of this book and its contents, see BMCR 2014.08.58.

Pomeroy, Sarah B. 1988.
"Women in Roman Egypt: A Preliminary Study Based on Papyri." In ANRW II.10.1: 708-723.

Pomeroy, Sarah B, ed. 1991.
Womeb's History and Ancient History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Panayotakis, C. 2006.
"Women in the Greco-Roman Mime of the Roman Republic and the Early Empire." In AOrdia Prima 5.121-138.

Rabinowitz, Nancy. 1993.
Feminist Theory and the Classics (Thinking Gender). New York: Routledge Press.

Racette-Campbell, Melanie. February/March 2013.
"Marriage Contracts, Fides and Gender Roles in Propertius 3.20." In The Classical Journal 108.3: 297-317.

Raia, Ann. 1983, rev. 2002.
Women's Roles in Plautine Comedy. A paper delivered at the 4th Conference on Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, St. Joseph’s College, North Windham, Maine, in the panel “Puella, Matrona, Meretrix: Women in Roman Literature and Life.”

Rawson, Beryl. 2003.
Children and Childhood in Roman Italy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

See an illustrated summary of Rawson's thesis by Barbara McManus.

Rawson, Beryl, ed. 2011.
A Companion to Families in the Greek and Roman Worlds. Chichester, U.K. , Malden, MA : Wiley-Blackwell.

Rawson, Beryl, ed. 1986.
The Family in Ancient Rome: New perspectives. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Rawson, Beryl, ed. 1991.
Marriage, Divorce, and Children in Ancient Rome. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Rawson, Beryl. 1974.
"Roman Concubinage and other De Facto Marriages." In Transactions of the American Philological Association 104:279-305.

Rawson, Beryl and Paul Weaver. 1997.
The Roman Family in Italy: Status, Sentiment, Space. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

The book contains the following essays: Richard Saller, "Roman Kinship: Structure and Sentiment"; Jane Gardner, "Legal Stumbling Blocks for Lower-Class Families in Rome"; Paul Weaver, "Children of Junian Latins"; Werner Eck, "Rome and the Outside World: Senatorial Families and the World they Lived In"; Peter Garnsey, "Sons, Slaves -- and Christians"; Tim Parkin, "Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Elderly Members of the Roman Family"; Suzanne Dixon, "Conflict in the Roman Family"; Hanne Sigismund Nielsen, "Interpreting Epithets in Roman Epitaphs"; Beryl Rawson, "The Iconography of Roman Childhood"; Paul Gallivan and Peter Wilkins, "Familial Structures in Roman Italy: A Regional Approach"; Lisa Nevett, "Perceptions of Domestic Space in Roman Italy"; Michele George, "Repopulating the Roman House"; Penelope Allison, "Artefact Distribution and Spatial Function in Pompeian Houses." For a review of this book and its contents, see BMCR 1998.08.03.

Richlin, Amy. 2011.
"Parallel lives: Domitia Lucilla and Cratia, Fronto and Marcus." In EuGeStA: Journal on Gender Studies in Antiquity, issue 1. Edited by Jacqueline Fabre-Serris and Judith Hallett.

Richlin, Amy. 1997.
"Pliny's Brassiere." In Roman Sexualities. Edited by Judith P. Hallett and Marilyn B. Skinner, 197-220. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Riddle, John M. 1992.
Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the Renaissance. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Pp. x + 245. ISBN 0-674-16875-5.

For a review of this book and its contents, see BMCR 04.04.08.

Riddle, John M. 1999.
Eve's Herbs: A History of Contraception and Abortion in the West. Harvard MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-27026-6.

Roberts, Paul. 2013.
Life and Death in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199987436.

For a review of this book and its contents, see BMCR 2014.04.54.

Roche, P. A. 2002.
"The Public Image of Trajan's Family." In Classical Philology 97: 41-60.

Rolfe, J. C. 1901.
"The Diction of the Roman Matrons.-- Plin. Epist. I.16.6." In Classical Review 15.9 (December) 452-453.

In this letter Pliny comments on the archaic writing style of the wife of one of his friends. Rolfe finds that Pliny's comment corroborates that of Cicero, viz., that women in general preserve the diction of Plautus or Naevius (de Orat. 8.12.45). Therefore Rolfe does not think the wife of Pliny's friend was consciously assuming the archaistic style that was coming into fashion, but rather is continuing the traditional style of diction among elite women.

Roller, Duane W. 2010.
Cleopatra: A Biography. Women in Antiquity. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195365535.

For a review of this book and its contents, see BMCR 2010.09.40.

Roller, Matthew. 2003.
"Horizontal Women: Posture and Sex in the Roman Convivium." In American Journal of Philology 124: 377-422.

Roller examines both visual and literary evidence to determine whether women dined reclining or sitting on couches at a convivium. It is generally thought that until the Augustan era, respectable women sat on couches, while others, including prostitutes, reclined alongside men, and their doing so signaled their sexual availability. Women, however, are portrayed as seated in visual representations of banquets (e.g. in tombs). Roller argues that while a woman of any status could recline at banquet beside a man with whom she was lawfully connected, respectable women would be represented as sitting, in accord with sexual mores rather than with social practice.

Rosivach, Vincent J. 1994-5.
"ANUS: Some Older Women in Latin Literature." In Classical World 88:107-117.

Rowlandson, Jane, (ed.) . 1998.
Women and Society in Greek and Roman Egypt: A Sourcebook. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-58815-4. 406 pp. 3 maps. 7 figures. 49 b/w.

Chapters focus on the following topics: royalty and religion; family matters; status and law; economic activities; being female (birth, education, marriage, health). Eleven scholars present 289 translated sources from texts, papyri, and inscriptions to document the lives of women, whether queens or slaves. Each chapter contains an introductory essay; each source has its own introduction. Sources are keyed to illustrations where appropriate. The volume contains a concordance of texts, bibliography, index.

Saller, Richard P. 1999.
"Pater Familias, Mater Familias, and the Gendered Semantics of the Roman Household." In Classical Philology 94.2 (April): 182-197.

Saller, Richard P. 1998.
"Symbols of Gender and Status Hierarchies in the Roman Household." In Women and Slaves in Greco-Roman Culture. Edited by S. Murnaghan and S. Joshel, pp. 85-91. London and New York: Routledge.

Salomies, O., (ed.). 2001.
The Greek East in the Roman Context. Proceedings of a Colloquium Organised by the Finish Institute at Athens (May 21-22, 1999). Helsinki.

Salway, Benet. 1994.
"What's in a Name? A Survey of Roman Onomastic Practice from c. 700 B.C. to A.D. 700." In Journal of Roman Studies 84: 124-145.

Salway focuses on the changes in naming practices of male Romans, but has occasional reference to women's names. He explains the early disappearance of the feminine praenomen used in the early Republic and sheds a little light on how, in the Empire, a mother's ancestry might be noted in cognomina, i.e. Apulleia Varilla was named Varilla to recall her maternal grandfather, Sex. Quinctilius Varus. Salway argues that the system of three names for the Roman male citizen (praenomen, nomen gentilicium, cognomen) was only a transitory stage in Roman naming practice and not its perfection. While the post-classical shift in importance from nomen to the cognomen is seen as the decay of the archetype, he charts the development of the naming system from its origins in Rome and identifies the reasons for change beyond linguistic factors, in political and social developments.

Salzman-Mtichell, Patricia B. 2007.
A Web of Fantasies: Gaze, Image, and Gender in Ovid's Metamorphoses. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.

Santoro L'hoir, Francesca. 2002.
"Unfriendly Persuasion: Seduction and Magic in Tacitus' Annales." In Ancient Journeys: Festschrift in Honor of Eugene Numa Lane. Edited by Cathy Callaway. Published by The Stoa: A Consortium for Electronic Publication in the Humanities.

The author discusses Tacitus' treatment of Boudica, Livia, and the two Agrippina's as women who have transgressed the boundaries of their sex through the misuse of their rhetorical powers.

Scheidel, Walter. 1999.
"Emperors, Aristocrats, and the Grim Reaper : towards a demographic profile of the Roman élite." In Classical Quarterly 49 (1): 254-281.

Scheidel examines the vital statistics of the imperial family and the elite (male and female) to determine what was their mean life expectancy, their martial fertility, mean marriage age for men and women, and rate of child mortality. He comments that the death of fertile women in the prime of their life was far from unusual.

Schultz, Celia A. 2007.
"Sanctissima Femina: Social Categorization and Women's Religious Experience in the Roman Republic." In Finding Persephone: Women's Rituals in the Ancient Mediterranean, edited by M. Parca, A. Tzanetou. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

For a review of the book see JFR August 25, 2011.

Schultz, Celia A. 2006.
Women's Religious Activity in the Roman Republic. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, Pp. xiii and 234. Cloth. ISBN 0-8078-3018-6.

Schultz uses literary sources, inscriptions, and artifacts, dating from the 5th to 1st centuries BCE to support her conclusions that Roman religion was far more gender-inclusive than is usually presented; that women held a number of high-profile religious positions (e.g., the priestesses of Ceres, Liber, and Venus); and that women were integrally involved in rites and cults that had broader civic concerns but have traditionally been thought to have been the preserve of men.

Seaford, R. A. S. 1981.
"The Mysteries of Dionysos at Pompeii." In Pegasus: Classical Essays from the University of Exeter. Edited by H. W. Stubbs. Exeter: University of Exeter Press: 52-67.

Sebesta, Judith Lynn. 1994.
"Weavers of Fate: Symbolism in the Costume of Roman Women." The Harrington Lectures, University of South Dakota.

This address discusses the changes in clothing a Roman woman experienced in her various life stages and the apotropaic symbolism of various items of clothing. It also considers in particular the symbolism attached to the acts of spinning and weaving.

Sebesta, Judith Lynn. 1997, 1998.
"Women's Costume and Feminine Civic Morality in Augustan Rome." In Gender and History 9.3 (November 1997) 529-541. 3 b3; reprinted in Gender and the Body in Mediterranean Antiquity. Edited by Maria Wyke. Oxford, UK , Malden, MA : Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0-631-20524-1.

Augustus claimed that the moral decay of the Roman Republic was especially due to Roman women who had forsaken their traditional role of "preserver of the household." In his attempt to reform feminine morality, Augustus created a new pictorial language that troped the feminine body as a "moral sign" of civic morality and authorized a distinctive costume for women. Sebesta investigates the relationship between women's garments, the female body and the Roman concept of feminine civic morality.

Sebesta, Judith Lynn and Larissa Bonfante, eds. 1994, 2001.
The World of Roman Costume. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. ISBSN 0-299-13854-2. 272 pp. 168 bw. Glossary, indices.

This volume contains thirteen chapters on garments, literary evidence and motifs of costume, provincial costume, and costume reconstruction written by scholars who participated in the 1988 NEH seminar on Roman costume. Of particular interest are "Symbolism in the Costume of the Roman Woman" by Judith Sebesta (covers the changes in dress a woman experienced as she passed through the stages of life from girl, bride, matron, materfamilias, and widow), "The Costume of the Roman Bride" by Letitia La Follette, "Jewelry as a Symbol of Status in the Roman Empire" by Ann M. Stout, and "De Habitu Vestis: Clothing in the Aeneid" by Henry Bender.

Setala, P. and L. Savuen, eds. 1999.
Female Networks and the Public Sphere in Roman Society. Rome: Institutum Romanum Finlandiae.

For a review of this book and its contents, see BMCR 2000.03.11.

Setala, P. Ria Berg, Rukka Halikka, Minerva Keltanen, Janne Polonen, and Ville Vuolanto, eds. 2002.
Women, Wealth, and Power in the Roman Empire. Rome: Institutum Romanum Finlandiae.

Severy, Beth. 2003.
Augustus and the Family at the Birth of the Roman Empire. London and New York: Routledge.

Sharrock, A. R. 2002.
"Gender and Sexuality." In The Cambridge Companion to Ovid. Edited by Philip Hardie. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sharrock, Alison. 2011.
"Womanly wailing? The mother of Euryalus and gendered reading." In EuGeStA: Journal on Gender Studies in Antiquity, issue 1. Edited by Jacqueline Fabre-Serris and Judith Hallett.

Sharrock, Alison. 2013.
"Uxorious: The Praise and Blame of Husbands." In EuGeStA: Journal on Gender Studies in Antiquity, issue 3. Edited by Jacqueline Fabre-Serris and Judith Hallett.

Shaw, Brent D. 1987.
"The Age of Roman Girls at Marriage: Some Reconsiderations." In The Journal of Roman Studies 77:30-46.

Shaw discusses the question of how young Roman women were upon age of first marriage. He notes that some did marry as young as ten or eleven, but most of the inscriptions discovered are near urban centers, such as Rome, and those noting a short term of marriage focus on women who died at a young age. Such inscriptions suggest that there was a fifty per cent mortality rate for women who married under the age of fifteen. The authors of the inscriptions around Rome are primarily parents until the deceased woman was twenty years of age, while husbands usually wrote the inscriptions for older wives. Those figures are not typical for other areas of the Roman Empire. For example in Spain parents wrote the inscriptions until the deceased woman was thirty or more years old. Shaw also notes that under Augustus a minimum legal age for marriage was established as well as a law that required women to have children by a certain age. Shaw presents evidence that during the Empire, men married in their mid to late twenties, whereas women married in their late teens.

Shelfer, Lochlan. 2011.
"Crime and Punishment in the Aeneid: The Danaids and the Legal Context of Turnus' Death." In Classical World 106.3. 295-319.

Shelton, Jo-Ann. 1998 2nd ed.
As The Romans Did: a Sourcebook in Roman Social History. 2d ed. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

Shelton, Jo-Ann. 2013.
The Women of Pliny's Letters. New York: Routledge, 2013.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2013.08.36.

Sick, David H. 1999.
"Ummidia Quadratilla: Cagey Businesswoman or Lazy Pantomime Watcher?" In Classical Antiquity 18.2: 330-348.

Sivan, Hagith. 2011.
Galla Placidia: the Last Roman Empress. Women in antiquity. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.

For a review of this book see BMCR 2012.05.24.

Skinner, Marilyn B. (ed.). May 27-30, 2004.
"Gender and Diversity in Place." In Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Feminism and Classics. University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

Skinner, Marilyn B. 1983.
"Clodia Metelli." In Transactions of the American Philological Society 113: 273-287.

Skinner, Marilyn B. 2011.
Clodia Metelli: The Tribune's Sister. Women in Antiquity. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.

For a review of this book and its contents, see BMCR 2011.07.50.

Sklenar, R. 2005.
"Ausonius' Elegiac Wife: Epigram 20 and the Traditions of Latin Love Poetry." In The Classical Journal 101.1: 51-62.

Smith, Amy C. and Sadie Pickup (eds.). 2010.
Brill's Companion to Aphrodite. Leiden; Boston: Brill.

For a review of this book and its contents, see BMCR 2012.07.13.

Smith, Warren, (ed.). 2005.
Satiric Advice on Women and Marriage: from Plautus to Chaucer. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

For a review of this book and its contents, see BMCR 07.04.41.

Snyder, Jane M. 1989.
The Woman and the Lyre: women writers in classical Greece and Rome. Carbondale and Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Solin, Heikki. 1996.
Die stadtrömischen Sklavennamen. Ein Namenbuch I-III. Forschungen zur antiken Sklaverei, Beiheft 2. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.

Spaeth, Barbette S.1996.
The Roman Goddess Ceres. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Staples, Ariadne. 1998.
From Good Goddess to Vestal Virgins: Sex and Category in Roman Religion. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-13233-9. 207 pp., index, bibliography.

Staples describes her book as being "about women's participation in Roman religion" and "about how religion constructed and defined women" during the late Republican period. She advances the unorthodox view that they played a central role in religion, participating in rites that were important to the state on a regular basis and in times of crisis, though "they were absent at the political interface of religion." Assuming that Roman religion was a "complex network of meaningfully related cults and rituals," in the succeeding four chapters she discusses mainstream Roman religious worship in which women played an important part: Bona Dea, Ceres, Flora, Venus, and the Vestals.

Stark, Rodney. 1996.
"The Role of Women in Christian Growth." In The Rise of Christianity: How the Obscure, Marginal Jesus Movement Became the Dominant Religious Force in the Western World in a Few Centuries, Chapter 5. Princeton: Princeton University Press

Starks, J. H., Jr. 2008.
"Pantomime Actresses in Latin Inscriptions." In New Directions in Ancient Pantomime, edited by E. Hall, R. Wyles. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 110-145.

Stephens, Janet 2008.
"Ancient Roman Hairdressing: on (hair)pins and needles." In Journal of Roman Archaeology 21:110-132.

Stephens, an experienced hairdresser, examines how ornatrices could have styled the curls, braids, and buns in the hairstyles of the first and second centuries CE. She discusses the terminology of hair bodkins and bone needles and how these were used to fashion the arrangement. Having explained how ornatrices could have sewn the hair of their dominae to create complicated hairstyles without the use of hairpieces, she includes color photographs of her recreations of the Hadrianic turban style, the serpentine bun style; the tower hairstyle; and the one-hundred strand braid hairstyle.

Stevenson, Jane. 2005.
Women Latin Poets : language, gender, and authority, from antiquity to the eighteenth century. Oxford, New York : Oxford University Press. 659 p.

Chapters 1, 2, and 3 deal, respectively, with: Classical Latin Women Poets (Sulpicia I and II); Epigraphy as a Source for Early Imperial Women's Verse; Women and Latin Poetry in Late Antiquity (Proba, the last pagan poets, the first nuns). The verse is given in Latin along with an English translation. An appendix serves as a "Checklist of Women Latin Poets and their Works."

Stewart, Susan. 2007.
Cosmetics and perfumes in the Roman world. Stroud: Tempus.

See review.

Stratton, Kimberly. 2007.
Naming the Witch: Magic, Ideology, and Stereotype in the Ancient World. New York: Columbia University Press. Pp. xv, 289. ISBN 978-0-231-13836-9.

SULPICIA. Fall 2006.
Engaging with Sulpicia: a special section. In Classical World 100.1. 3-42.

The original versions of these articles were delivered in a panel on Sulpicia that took place at the meeting of the Classical Association of theAtlantic States in Spring 2002 at Cherry Hill, New Jersey. "Critical Trends in Interpreting Sulpicia" by Alison Keith, 3-10; "Sulpicia: Just Another Roman Poet" by Carol U. Merriam, 11-15; "Catullus and the Amicus Catulli: The Text of a Learned Talk" by Holt N. Parker, 17-29; "Erasing Cerinthus: Sulpicia and Her Audience" by Lee T. Pearcy, 31-36; "Sulpicia and Her Fama: An Intertextual Approach to Recovering Her Latin Literary Image," 37-42.

Syme, Ronald. April, 1981.
"Princesses and Others in Tacitus." In Greece & Rome, 2nd Ser., 28.1: 40-52.

Takacs, Sarolta A. 2009.
The Construction of Authority in Ancient Rome and Byzantium: The Rhetoric of Empire. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.

See particularly chapter 3, which covers the Severan period; there the author theorizes that "in times of crisis when a suitable father figure was absent, a mother figure could temporarily provide the authority necessary for transmitting symbolic power from one generation to the next." See a review of the book at BMCR 2009.07.02

Takacs, Sarolta A. 2008.
Vestal Virgins, Sibyls, and Matrons. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Using literary and epigraphical sources, Takacs investigates the role of Roman women in Roman religion, culture and history showing that it is more pervasive and essential, in Roman thought, to the vitality and success of the state than generally believed. Women did enter the public sphere of Roman society through certain religious ceremonies that re-established or maintained its "customary sociopolitical status quo." Chapters focus on "The Making of Rome," Rome Eternal," "Rome Beseiged." Particularly valuable are the chapters "Rome and Its Provinces," which uses mainly epigraphical sources to elucidate women's religious activities in the provinces and that of "Life Cycles and Time Structures," which reviews the annual public rites that women, whether Vestals, flaminicae, or matronae, engaged in on behalf of the state, the fertility of its citizens, and its relationship with the gods.

Taoka, Yasuko. April-May 2013.
"Liminal Women in Fronto's Letters." In The Classical Journal 108.4: 419-445.

Thomsen, O. 1992.
Ritual and Desire: Catullus 61 and 62 and Other Ancient Documents on Wedding and Marriage. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.

Treggiari, Susan. 1979.
"Lower Class Women in the Roman Economy." In Florilegium 1 (revision of a paper presented at the meeting of the Association of Ancient Historians, May 1976).

Treggiari, Susan. 1981.
"Contubernales in CIL VI." In Phoenix 35: 59-81.

Treggiari, Susan. 1984.
"Digna Condicio: Betrothals in the Roman Upper Class." In Echos du Monde Classique: Classical Views 28.3: 419-451.

Treggiari, Susan. 1991.
Roman Marriage: Iusti coniuges from the Time of Cicero to the Time of Ulpian. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Treggiari, Susan. 1994.
"Putting the Bride to Bed." In Echos du Monde Classique: Classical Views 38.13: 311-331.

Treggiari, Susan. 2007.
Terentia, Tullia and Publilia: The Women of Cicero's Family. London and New York: Routledge. Pp. xxii, 228; maps 3, figs. 7. ISBN 978-0-415-35179-9.

For a review of this book and its contents see BMCR 2008.07.06

Trimble, Jennifer. 2011.
Women and Visual Replication in Roman Imperial Art and Culture. Greek culture in the Roman world. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. xi, 486. ISBN 9780521825153.

For a review of this book and its contents see BMCR 2012.08.07.

Turcan, Robert. 2000.
The Gods of Ancient Rome: Religion in Everyday Life from Archaic to Imperial Times. Translated by Antonia Nevill. London and New York: Routledge.

Uden, James. 2005.
"Scortum Diligis: a Reading of Catullus 6." In Classical Quarterly 55: 638-42.

Upson-Sala, Kristi. 2011.
Early Christian Dress: Gender, Virtue, and Authority. New York, London: Routledge.

For a review of this book and its contents see BMCR 2012.02.39.

Uzzi, Jeannine Diddle. 2005.
Children in the Visual Arts of Imperial Rome. New York: Cambridge University Press .

van der Leest, Wendelijn. August 2007.
"Female Visual Presence in Pompeii." Research Master History Thesis, University of Utrecht.

Vessey, D.W.T.C. 1977.
"Statius to his Wife: Silvae 3.5. In Classical Journal 72: 134-40.

Viparelli, Valeria. 2008.
"Camilla: A Queen Undefeated, Even in Death." In Vergilius 54: 9-23.

Veyne, Paul, (ed.). 1987.
A History of Private Life. Volume I: From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Cambridge, MA and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Vout, Caroline. 2007.
Power and Eroticism in Imperial Rome. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Vout, Caroline. 2013.
Sex on Show: Seeing the Erotic in Greece and Rome. Berkeley; Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520280205.

For a review of this book and its contents see BMCR2014.04.57.

Walker, Cheryl. 2005.
"Appendix II.A: The Legend of Cloelia." In Hostages in Republican Rome, Center for Hellenic Studies, Washington, DC: 263-270.

Walker, Susan. 1990.
"The Sarcophagus of Maconiana Severiana." In Roman Funerary Monuments in the J. Paul Getty Museum Volume 1: Occasional Papers on Antiquities. Edited by Guntrum Koch, pp. 83-94. Malibu, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum. Paper, 144 pages, 194 b/w illustrations. ISBN 978-0-89236-151-9.

Wallace, Rex E. 2004.
An Introduction to Wall Inscriptions from Pompeii and Herculaneum. Wauconda, Illinois: Bolchazy-Carducci. Pp. xlvi and 136.

This book, aimed at undergraduates and graduate students, is divided into two parts: an introduction to the inscriptions in general and a selection of inscriptions, with notes and commentary. It includes also a list of abbreviations (grammatical and epigraphical) in the selected inscriptions and a full vocabulary. While all inscriptions do not pertain to women, some do, and the volume has usefulness as an introduction to epigraphy.

Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew. 1994.
Houses and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

See also Penelope M. Addison, Pompeiian Households: An On-line Companion.

Warrior, Valerie M. 2002.
Roman Religion: a sourcebook. Newburyport, MA: Focus.

Watson, P. 1992.
"Erotion: Puella Delicata? " In Classical Quarterly 42: 253-268.

Watson, Patricia A. 2005.
"Non Tristis Torus et Tamen Pudicus: the Sexuality of the Matrona in Martial." Mnemosyne LVIII, Fasc.1. Leiden: Brill.

Weaver, P.R.C. 1972.
FAMILIA CAESARIS: A Social Study of the Emperor's Freedmen and Slaves. London and New York: Cambridge University Press.

Welch, Tara. 2012.
" Perspectives On and Of Livy’s Tarpeia." In EuGeStA: Journal on Gender Studies in Antiquity, issue 2. Edited by Jacqueline Fabre-Serris and Judith Hallett.

West, G.S. 1985.
"Chloreus and Camilla." In Vergilius 31: 22-29.

Wiedemann, Thomas. 1989.
Adults and Children in the Roman Empire. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Wiedemann, Thomas. 1981.
Greek and Roman Slavery. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Wildfang, Robin Lorsch. 2006.
Rome's Vestal Virgins: A study of Rome's Vestal priestesses in the late Republic and early Empire. London and New York: Routledge Press.

Wilhelm, M.P. 1987.
"Venus, Dido and Camilla in the Aeneid." In Vergilius 33: 43-48.

Williams, Gordon. 1958.
"Some Aspects of Roman Marriage Ceremonies and Ideals." In Journal of Roman Studies 48: 16-29.

Williams, Phyllis L. October 1940-January 1941.
"Two Roman Reliefs in Renaissance Disguise." In Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 4.1/2: 46-66.

Wilson, Marcus. 2003.
The Tragedy of Nero's Wife: Studies on the Octavia Praetexta. In Prudentia 35.1. Auckland, New Zealand.

Winsbury, Rex 2010.
Zenobia of Palmyra: History, Myth and the Neo-classical Imagination. London: Duckworth, 2010. ISBN 9780715638538.

For a review of this book and its contents, see BMCR 2011.05.43 .

Winter, Bruce. 2003.
Roman Wives, Roman Widows: The Apearance of New Women and the Pauline Communities. Grand Rapids, Michigan/Cambridge, UK: William B. Eerdmans Publishing.

For a critique of this work, see Australian Biblical Review, Vol 53 (Winter, 2005)

Winterer, Caroline. 2007.
The Mirror of Antiquity. American Women and the Classical Tradition, 1750-1900. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Pp. xii, 242. ISBN 978-0-8014-4163-9

Wiseman, T. P. 1983.
"The Wife and Children of Romulus." In Classical Quarterly 33.ii. 445-452.

Wood, Susan. 1993.
"Alcestis on Roman Sarcophagi." In Roman Art in Context: An Anthology. Edited by Eve D'Ambra, 84-103. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-781808-4. 247 pp. 97 bw. Glossary, bibliography.

There is a small group of Roman sarcophagi that contains the depiction of the death of Alcestis in relief. Wood examines a unique variation of this theme which shows Alcestis returning from the dead. She examines how this scene may connect to the religion of the Magna Mater professed by the owners of the sarcophagus, C. Junius Euhodus and his wife Metilia Acte, priestess of the cult of Cybele. This chapter also contains a "postscript," written thirteen years after the article's original appearance, that discusses three articles of relevance to the interpretation of this sarcophagal scene.

Wood, Susan. 1999.
Imperial Women: A Study in Public Images, 40 B.C-A.D. 69. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Wyke, Maria. 2002.
The Roman Mistress. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wyke, Maria. 1994.
"Woman in the Mirror: The Rhetoric of Adornment in the Roman World." In Women in Ancient Societies. Edited by L. Archer et al. New York.

Young, Lesa A. (August) 2002.
"The Roles of Patrician and Plebeian Women in Their Religion in the Republic of Rome." Thesis.

Zajko, Vanda and Miriam Leonard. 2006.
Laughing with Medusa: Classical Myth and Feminist Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. 445. ISBN 0-19-927438-X.

Zanda, Emanuela. 2011.
Fighting Hydra-like Luxury: Sumptuary Regulation in the Roman Republic. London: Bristol Classical Press

For a review of this book see BMCR 2012.05.50.

Zanker, Paul. 1998.
Pompeii: public and private life. Translated by Deborah L. Schneider. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Zeiner, Noelle K. Spring 2007.
"Perfecting the Ideal: Molding Roman Women in Statius's Silvae." In Arethusa 40. 2: 165-181. Special Issue: Statius's Silvae and the Poetics of Intimacy. Guest editors Antony Augoustakis and Carole E. Newlands.

Zinserling, Verena. 1973.
Women in Greece and Rome. Translated by L. A. Jones. New York: Abner Schram.

Latin Text Commentaries and Epigraphical Sources

L'Annee Epigraphique: Epigraphic database Heidelberg.

Bagnall, Roger S. and Raffaella Cribiore. 2006.
Women's Letters from Ancient Egypt. 300 B.C.-A.D. 800. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press.

A collection of papyrus letters from Egypt written by women and organized according to their archives. The letters, limited by their concern for urgent everyday matters, are brief, unliterary and often obscure. The editors provide description, translation, interpretive context, and an introduction to the study of papyrus documents, while admitting the letters do not evidence a distinct feminine voice (see review by M.R. Lefkowitz in CW 101.1(Fall 2007).

Balme, Maurice and James Morwood. 2003.
On the Margin: Marginalized Groups in Ancient Rome. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.

Barker, Allison. 2004.
Links for the Study of Catullus.

Birley, Anthony R. 2000.
Onomasticon to the Younger Pliny: letters and panegyric. München and Leipzig: K. G. Saur.

Bordel, J, ed. 2001.
Epigraphic Evidence: Ancient History from Inscriptions. London: Routledge.

Buecheler, Franz and E. Lommatzsch, eds. 1972.
Carmina Latina Epigraphica (CLE), 3 vols. Leipzig: Teubner, 1895-; reprinted Amsterdam.

Buecheler, Franz. and A. Riese, eds. 1895-1930.
Anthologia Latina. Leipzig: Teubner.

Collingwood, R.G. and R. P. Wright. 1965.
The Roman Inscriptions of Britain: Inscriptions on Stone (RIB). Vol I. Oxford: University Press. Online Epitome (RBO).

Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL). 16 vols. 1869-1955.
Berlin: G. Reimerum, de Gruyte.

Dessau, Herman, ed. 1979.
Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae (ILS). Chicago: Ares Publishers, reprint.

Eagle: Epigraphic Database Rome. Electronic Archive of Greek and Latin Epigraphy

Goodyear, Francis Richard David. 1972-1981.
The Annals of Tacitus, books 1-6. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gordon, Arthur E. and Joyce S. Gordon . 1958-1965.
Album of Dated Latin Inscriptions: Rome and the Neighborhood, A.D. 200-525, 7 vols. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Harvey, Brian K.. 2005.
Epigraphic Images.

This site is a handsome collection of images and transcriptions of inscriptions identified by place (Beneventum, Ostia, Pompeii, Pozzuoli, Rome, Vatican) and collection.

Ostia Inscriptions
Links to Inscriptions found in Ostia and Portus: photographs with transcriptions; photographs with epigraphic numbers taken by the National Italian Photographic Archive

Ogilvie, Robert Maxwell. 1970.
A Commentary on Livy, books 1-5. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965; reprinted with addenda.

Sherwin-White, A. N. 1966.
The letters of Pliny: a historical and social commentary. Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Walsh, Joseph J. (ed). 2007.
What Would You Die For? Perpetua's Passion. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Sites for the Study of Ancient Women

    Diotima: Women and Gender in the Ancient World

    Femina Habilis: a biographical dictionary of active women in the ancient Roman world from earliest times to 527 CE, grouped under subject headings.

    Internet Women's History Sourcebook: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern sources in the original and translation.

    Voice of the Shuttle

Ann R. Raia and Judith Lynn Sebesta
Updated: September 2014