Sentinas, -atis, adjective
of, from, belonging to Sentinum, a town in the East-central part of Italy near the Adriatic Sea and close to the Via Flaminia. It was the site in 295 BCE of a decisive victory by the Romans, led by Publius Decius Mus, over the Gauls and the Samnites.
rea, -ae, f.
a party in a lawsuit; accused person, defendant. The nature of the charge is unknown, but Valerius' description leads Marshall to identify it as a formal criminal inquiry (pp. 48, 51).
causa, -ae, f.
a lawsuit, trial. With agit below: plead at a trial, plead a case.
praetor, -oris, m.
praetor, judicial magistrate. An annually elected Roman magistrate whose office was just below that of the consuls. He was escorted by six armed lictores and wore the toga praetexta. The praetor urbanus remained in Rome, primarily as a judge in the law courts, but he could also convene the comitia and initiate legislation. During the Republic and early Empire this magistrate published an edict (Praetor's Edict) at the beginning of his term of office detailing specifics of his tenure over and above those of prior praetors (whose edicts could be modified or expanded but not withdrawn).
Lucius Titus is unknown, but scholarly consensus places him in the first half of the first century B.C. (see Marshall, "Roman Ladies on Trial," note 2).
iudicium, -i, n.
judgment, decision, opinion, trial. With cogente: preside over court, judge the case; the Praetor is not alone in giving judgment.
concursus, -us, m.
gathering, assembly. The case attracted public interest, whether for the nature of the charge or the rarity of a female advocate.
modus, -i, m.
form, type; together with numerus, a reference to elements in the formal speech of defense.
numerus, -i, m.
number; category; part.
defensio, -onis, f.
non solum sed etiam: not only but also.
carefully, attentively, diligently, assiduously.
ex(s)equor, ex(s)equi, ex(s)ecutus sum
follow; pursue; describe, relate (speech); supply est.
actio, -onis, f.
action in a court of justice, suit at law, process. Prima actio = the first hearing, the first part of a criminal case during which the accuser outlined the charges, the defendant responded and witnesses were presented. Usually, after several days the Secunda Actio, the second hearing followed with responses, after which the jury voted. Maesia's noteworthy defense brought her judges to the vote.
cuncti, -ae, -a
all together, all other.
sententia, -ae, f.
opinion, decision; vote; the judgment was determined by a court whose members are unknown.
aquit; cause (a charge) to be dropped.
quam = illam.
sub + ablative case
species, -ei f.
characteristic or worthy of a true man; masculine, virile.
animus, -i, m.
reason, thought, belief, inclination, nature.
gero, gerere, gessi, gestum
wear; exhibit; carry on .
Androgynus -i m., Greek
hermaphrodite. Androgynen = feminine Greek accusative, and thus she was nicknamed "Androgyny"; perhaps an honorary term in tribute to her courage in coming before a male court packed by a curious public and to her winning logic, rather than censorious or belittling.
call, name, term.
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