in fact, really, truly.
Licinius Bucco: an otherwise unknown
promptus, -a, um
ready, at hand, prompt; with ad + accusative= quick to, inclined to, disposed to.
lis, litis f.
contraho, contrahere, contraxi, contractum
engage in, enter upon; the gerundive modifies lites (when the gerund has a direct object, the passive verbal adjective is used actively in its place, taking the case, number, and gender of its object).
pro preposition with the ablative
on behalf of; for; in place of.
apudpreposition with the accusative
in the presence of, before.
praetor, -oris, m.
praetor, judicial magistrate. An annually elected Roman magistrate whose office was just below that of the consuls. He was escorted by six armed lictores and wore the toga praetexta. The praetor urbanus remained in Rome, primarily as a judge in the law courts, but he could also convene the comitia and initiate legislation. During the Republic and early Empire this magistrate published an edict (Praetor's Edict) at the beginning of his term of office detailing specifics of his tenure over and above those of prior praetors (whose edicts could be modified or expanded but not withdrawn).
verbum, -i, n.
word; expression; verb; plural. talk, speech; verba facere= talk, speak, here plead a case.
advocatus, -i, m.
legal adviser, advocate; professional pleader.
deficio, deficere, defeci, defectum
fail, desert, leave without; passive with the ablative or ab= lack, be wanting; have shortcomings.
in/mpudentia, -ae, f.
shamelessness, effrontery; immodesty.
overflow, abound in, be rich in.
inusitatus, -a, -um
unusual, unfamiliar, strange; followed by the dative case (foro).
forum, -i n.
Roman Forum; during the Republic it was the locus for holding courts of law, usually in a basilica. During Afrania's lifetime the building of choice would have been the Basilica Aemilia (built in 2nd century BCE; see description), as the Basilica Iulia was not built until 54 BCE.
baying, barking (of dogs); shouting, bawling (of people); ablative of manner after exercendo. Note the prejudice against the female voice raised in public. Certainly it was no more unpleasant than male voices raised in a crowd, but women were prohibited from political action (inusitatus foro).
continually, regularly, constantly.
tribunal, -nalis, n.
dais, platform; (metonymy) court of law, judgment. The Roman magistrate's chair was placed on a tribunal, sometimes portable; from it he pronounced official judgments (a moveable example is at the icon link beside the text; a stationary, inside the Roman Curia).
exerceo, -ere, exercui, exercitum
keep busy; harass, worry; engage; practice.
typical of/natural to a woman.
calumnia, -ae, f.
false accusation; misrepresentation; malicious prosecution.
notus, -a, -um, superlative form
known (here, in the sense of infamous).
exemplum, -i, n.
example (concrete), specimen.
evado, evadere, evasi, evasum
end up, turn out, emerge (as), followed by exemplum, as a predicate nominative.
to such an extent/so true is it that(in explanation of a previous statement), followed by ut and the subjunctive obiciatur in a result clause.
crimen, -inis, n.
indictment, charge, accusation; pro crimine=by way of reproach.
improbus , -a, -um
unprincipled; wicked, perverse; unruly.
mos, moris, m.
custom, habit; pl. character, behavior, morals.
nomen, -inis, n.
name; ad nomen= by the name.
obicio, obicere, obieci, obiectum
charge with; denounce/criticize for; followed by the dative case (improbis . . .moribus). The subject of the verb is the unnamed indefinite person one (here, clearly a woman.)
extend, prolong, continue.
spiritus, us m.
breathing; (metonymy) life; arrogance.
for the second time.
consul, -is m.
consul; the highest magistrate in the Roman Republic. Two were elected each year to convene the Senate and assemblies, preside over meetings, initiate and administer legislation; they also served as generals in military actions and as diplomats in external affairs. See consular list.
such; the following.
monstrum, -i n.
marvel, portent, monster.
magis comparative adverb of magnus
more, rather; followed by quam.
exstinguo, -ere, -stinxi, -stinctum
kill, destroy, extinguish. Translate with sit in an indirect question introduced by quo tempore; subject = monstrum.
orior, iri, orta/us
rise, spring; translate with sit, subjunctive in indirect question.
trado, -ere, -didi, -ditum
relate, record; hand down; the subject of the verb is monstrum, followed by the dative memoriae. Tradendum est is in the periphrastic conjugation (the future passive participle tradendus is joined to the verb sum to indicate necessity).
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