Notes to Tacitus. Annales 2.34

haud adverb
not at all; with minus= no less, just as much.
liber, -era, -erum
unrestrained, unchecked; free, independent; modifies doloris.
dolor, -oris m.
indignation, anger, resentment; distress, pain, sorrow; objective genitive after documentum.
documentum, -i n.
proof, example, instance, i.e., Urgulania's refusal to answer the legal charge against her is a fresh instance of the corruption Piso decries.
idem, eadem, idem
same, very; because of its placement and spelling, it can modify documentum and/or Piso.
voco (1)
call, summon (with in ius)= summon into court; perfect passive participle modifying Urgulania, in an ablative absolute clause.
supra preposition followed by the accusative
above, over, beyond; governs leges.
amicitia -ae f.
friendship; alliance between nations; attachment between friends gains political significance when it involves public figures or members of the imperial family. The classic Roman work on the nature and importance of amicitia is Cicero's dialogue Laelius de Amicitia (45 BCE).
Augusta -ae f.
Imperial Majesty, an honorific title given to Livia in Augustus' will, it was subsequently awarded to mothers, wives, daughters, sisters of emperors. Click on the SPQR for a cameo image of Livia Augusta.
ec/ffero, -ferre, extuli, elatum
raise, elevate, lift up; bring out/forth.
aut conjunction
or; either . . .or; note the balanced construction created by this pair of conjunctions (aut Urgulania . . . aut ille).
obtempero (1)
comply, obey.
domus, -us/-i f.
house, home; Tiberius's imperial palace on the Palatine hill was near the Domus Augustana (click SPQR for a plan of the Palatine).
Caesar, -aris m.
Caesar; all emperors after the dictator bore the name Caesar with the title Augustus until Hadrian, when Caesar became the title for the heir to the throne. Click on the SPQR for a cameo image of Tiberius as emperor.
sperno, -ere,sprevi, spretum
reject, spurn; perfect passive participle in an ablative absolute with Pisone.
veho, -ere, vexi, vectum
convey, carry; perfect passive participle modifying Urgulania.
abscedo, -ere, -essi, -essum
cease, withdraw; the subject ille is Piso.
quamquam conjunction
although; followed by the subjunctive quereretur.
violo (1)
dishonor, injure, violate; present infinitive in indirect statement after quereretur, whose subject is se, the accusative reflexive pronoun, referring to Livia.
immineo, -ere, -minui
threaten, menace; hang down over; infinitive in indirect statement.
queror, -eri, questus,-a,-um sum
complain; followed by the accusative and infinitive in indirect statement.
hactenus adverb
thus far, so far; followed by ut and the subjunctive diceret in a result/consecutive clause introduced by the adverb hactenus.
indulgeo, -ere, –dulsi, -dultum
indulge, give way to, followed by the dative matri; infinitive in indirect statement after ratus.
civilis, -e
of or pertaining to citizens; courteous, polite, affable. Here the neuter adjective functions as an adverb which could modify either verb; the point is that Tiberius accommodates his mother's request not in his capacity as emperor.
reor, reri, ratus, a, um sum
think, suppose; the deponent perfect participle translates actively, modifying Tiberius.
eo, ire, ivi, itum
go; supply esse for the future active infinitive in indirect statement following diceret. Its subject is se, the accusative reflexive pronoun, referring to Tiberius, the subject of diceret.
praetor, -oris m.
praetor; an elected state official second only to the consul, he was the most senior civil law justice in Rome (see praetor). That the praetor went to Urganilla to take evidence from her at home rather than in court was a mark of her privileged status.
tribunal, -alis n.
judgment, judgment seat; the platform on which Roman magistrates sat to hear cases (the SPQR shows Augustus seated on the sella curulis on the tribunal).
adsum, -esse, -fui, -futurum
support; be present with aid, protect, defend; supply esse for the future active infinitive in indirect statement following diceret. Followed by the dative case. Note the omission of et (asyndeton).
procedo, -ere, -cessi,- cessum
go forth, advance, appear.
Palatium, -ii n.
Palatine, palace; ablative of place from which.
procul adverb
at a distance; modifies sequi.
specto (1)
behold, gaze at, observe; the subject is Tiberius.
occurso (1)
run, go, come to meet; a frequentative of occurro, it is in the ablative absolute with populo.
compono, -ere, -posui, positum
compose, arrange, order; compare; perfect passive participle modifying Tiberius
os, -oris n.
face, mouth; ablative of respect following compositus.
iter, itineris n.
way, path, journey; tempus et iter illustrates the rhetorical device hendiadys. Why is its use effective here?
donec conjunction
until, finally; while; followed by the subjunctive iuberet.
propinquus, -a, -um
near in relationship (relative, kin, friend).
frustra adverb
in vain, without effect, without reason, for nothing.
coerceo, -ere, -ui, -itum
surround, restrain, curb; in the ablative absolute with propinquis, its object is Pisonem.
defero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum
bring, convey, deliver; passive infinitive in indirect statement with the accusative subject pecuniam, either a debt or a fine.
isque= is + -que
fama, -ae f.
report, reputation, glory; ablative of description with maiore. This sentence (particularly the lack of parallelism between neque and et) is a good example of Tacitus' preference for brevity, variety and asymmetry.
ceterum adverb
besides, otherwise, for the rest. Tacitus offers a second example of Urgulania's haughty public behavior.
to such a degree, so much; followed by ut and the subjunctive dedignaretur.
nimius, -a, -um
excessive, too much, too mighty; modifies potentia and governs civitati.
civitas, -tatis
citizenship; condition/privileges of a Roman citizen; dative singular after nimia.
testis, -is m./f.
witness. This case is more shocking, as it involves her being called before the senate.
tracto (1)
investigate, conduct, treat; the subject is [causa] quae.
dedignor (1)
reject as unworthy, refuse, disdain; imperfect subjunctive in a result clause with Urgulania as subject, followed by the infinitive venire.
domi = locative case.
interrogo (1)
question, interrogate; imperfect subjunctive in relative clause of purpose.
cum conjunction
when, whereas, although; a concessive clause with the perfect subjunctive fuerit. Click on the SPQR for an image of the Vestal Virgins banqueting.
iudicium -ii n.
court, trial.
quotiens adverb
as often as, whenever, followed by the subjunctive (dicerent), sometimes used in subordinate clauses to express repeated action.
testimonium -ii n.
evidence, witness, proof.
vetus, -eris
ancient, old.
mos, moris m.
practice, custom, usage; here followed by the indirect statement with an accusative subject virgines Vestales and passive infinitive audiri.

Notes to Tacitus. Annales 4.21.1

actum: supply est; used impersonally and followed by de + ablative = discuss, deliberate, bring up.
dehinc adverb
then, next; from there.
ferox, -ocis
outspoken, spirited, defiant; in apposition (also ) with Pisone. A family characteristic inherited from Piso’s father, Tacitus uses the adjective for his brother as well (Annales 2.43.3).
refero, -ferre, rettuli, relatum
report; bring back; Tacitus refers to the incident he described in Annales 2.34 above.
cedo, -ere, cessi, cessum
withdraw, retreat; supply esse, a future infinitive in indirect statement following clamitaverat, taking se (Piso) as its subject.
factio, -onis, f.
division, faction, political party; accusative after the preposition ob.
accusator, -oris m.
accuser, prosecutor.
clamito (1)
cry out, proclaim.
sperno, -ere, sprevi, spretum
reject, spurn; perfect passive participle in an ablative absolute with potentia Augustae.
excio, -ire,-civi or –cii, -itum
call forth, bring out; followed by the ablative (domo).
audeo, -ere, ausus,-a, -um sum (semi-deponent)
dare. The subject is Is (Piso). The verb governs the infinitives trahere and exire.
in praesens: in the moment, at the time.
civiliter adverb
as becomes a private citizen; compare Tacitus's description above (Annales 2.34.3).
habeo, -ere, habui, habitum
manage, accept, consider; have, hold; the direct object is quae, neuter plural.
revolvo, -ere, -volvi, -volutum
recall, repeat, go over again; present active participle modifying animo.
etiam si: even if, although
impetus, -us m.
impulse, passion.
offensio, -onis f.
displeasure, offense; indisposition; stumbling.
langueo, -ere
be faint, weak, feeble.
valeo, -ere, -ui, -itum
be strong, powerful; both langueo and valeo are used in contexts of health: what is the effect of the metaphor?

Notes to Tacitus. Annales 4.22.1-2

per preposition + accusative
during; throughout.
Plautius Silvanus: Marcus Plautius Silvanus, grandson of Urgulania, son of M. Plautius Silvanus (general, consul 2 BCE) and Lartia, husband first of Fabia Numantina, whom he divorced, and then of Apronia. Since he served as a praetor urbanus and magistrates were usually not tried while in office, he is brought before the emperor.
Apronia: she is a descendent of the distinguished plebian gens, which held office regularly from 449 BCE. Her father, Lucius Apronius, was consul suffectus (8 CE) and proconsul in Africa (20 CE).
in praeceps: headlong. Tacitus doesn't specify whether it was from an upper storey window or down the stairs.
socer, -eris m.
father-in-law; ablative giverned by the preposition ab. This is Lucius Apronius, the father of Apronia.
turbo (1)
disturb, agitate, confuse; perfect passive participle in an ablative of manner with mente.
tamquam adverb
as if, just as if; here introduces a conditional clause of comparison in the subjunctive (supply pluperfect subjunctive fuisset).
eo adverb
for that reason, therefore.
ignarus, -a, -um
unaware, ignorant.
sponte adverb
voluntarily, of one's own will (in reference to uxor).
sumo, -ere, sumpsi, sumptum
take, choose, claim; pluperfect subjunctive in the apodosis of a conditional clause of comparison after tamquam.
cunctanter adverb
slowly, with delay; Tacitus uses litotes here to emphasize Tiberius' swift response.
pergo, -ere, perrexi, perrectum
go on, pursue with energy, proceed; what is the effect of the historical present?
viso, -ere, -i, -um
look at, survey; click on the SPQR for an elegant example of a cubiculum.
reluctor (1)
struggle against, resist; present participle referring to Apronia, genitive after vestigia.
impello, -ere, -puli, pulsus
push, thrust, throw violently; perfect participle referring to Apronia, genitive after vestigia.
vestigium, -ii n.
trace, track, footprint.
cerno, -ere, crevi, cretum
discern, perceive, see; subject is vestigia.
iudex, -icis m.
judge; ablative absolute with datis. It is unclear whether the Senate appointed a committee from its own ranks or referred the case to the law courts.
avia, -ae f.
pugio, -onis m.
short dagger; click on the SPQR for an example.
nepos, -otis m.
grandson; nephew; descendant.
perinde adverb
just as, exactly.
credo, -ere, -didi, -ditum
suppose, believe; the subject is quod (supply est).
quasi adverb
as if, as it were; supply factum.
monitus, -us m.
advice, warning, counsel; ablative of instrument or means.

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