consul, -is m.
consul. Tacitus records his history year by year (thus the title Annales); it is Roman practice to identify the year by naming the two consuls in office. The year of the consulship of Gaius Fufius Geminus and Lucius Rebellius Geminus was 29 CE.
obeo, -ire, -ivi/-ii, itum
die; go to; visit.
extremus, -a, -um
extreme; greatest. Livia must have been about 85 years of age, as her son Tiberius was 70.
Claudius, -i m. a patrician
family name whose members descended from the famous Appius Claudius Caecus and
included as well such diverse figures as Clodia Metelli and the Emperor
Livius, -i m. a Roman family name;
daughters were usually given the feminine form of the family name, hence Livia;
her father was Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus, adopted son of Livius
Iulius, -i m. a Roman family name,
famous members of which were Julius Caesar and Augustus; the name is commonly
derived from Iulus, the alternate name of Aeneas son Ascanius. Click on
the SPQR icon beside the Latin text to see the coins Augustus and his
successors minted in her image.
for the first time; first.
liberi, -orum m.
children; i.e. Tiberius and Drusus who would later be adopted by Octavian.
fuere= alternate form of fuerunt.
Tiberius Claudius Nero
(-onis), c. 85-33 BCE: first husband of Livia, who was his kinswoman in the
Claudian gens. Click on the SPQR icon beside the Latin text for a basalt
portrait bust of the young Livia.
thereafter; next; accordingly.
Caesar, -aris m.: as adopted son of Caesar, Octavian, not yet princeps or Augustus, used his adopted fathers name at this time (39 BCE).
cupido, -inis f.
desire, passion, lust; ablative of cause.
forma, -ae f
aufero, -ferre, -abstuli,
take away, carry away; steal; obtain.
maritus, -i m.
incertum an [est]:
it is uncertain whether.
invitus. -a, -um
adeo ... ut:
so ... that .
properus, -a, -um
ne quidem: not even.
enitor, eniti, enisus/a sum
give birth to. Nitendum = gerund with ad, expressing purpose, following the ablative absolute spatio dato.
penates, -ium m. pl.
household gods, spirits of the larder; home. Click on the SPQR icon beside the Latin text to see a representation.
gravidus, -a, um
induco, -ere, -duxi, -ductum
bring in, introduce.
hereafter, in future.
suboles, -s f.
edo, -ere, didi, ditum
give birth to; put forth; produce.
sanguis, -inis m.
blood; descent; offspring; family.
coniunctio, -onis f.
union; connection; affinity.
Agrippina Maior (14 BCE-33 CE):
daughter of Julia, the daughter of Augustus, and Agrippa. Click on the
SPQR icons beside the Latin text for images of Agrippina and her husband
Germanicus (15 BCE- 19 CE ):
son of Antonia Minor, the daughter of Octavia and Antony, and Drusus, the son
of Livia and Tiberius Claudius Nero.
adnecto, -ere, -nexui, -nexum
common; universal; general.
pronepos, -otis m.
sanctitas, -tatis f.
integrity, chastity; sacredness; an ablative of description.
priscus, -a, um
ancient; former; old-fashioned. Understand erat here and with each of the following phrases.
mos, -moris m.
custom, practice; nature, manner.
agreeable; friendly; courteous.
often followed by quam = beyond.
antiquus, -a, um
old-fashioned; honest; former.
approve; recommend; probatum [erat] = impersonal use. Suetonius Augustus 71 reveals that Augustus libido was such that his wife supplied maidens for him.
headstrong, violent; powerless, weak. Suetonius IV.23 notes that Caligula was said to have irreverently named his great-grandmother, Livia Augusta, Ulysses in a stola" (see stola).
well-suited; good-natured; the whole phrase is facilis et ... bene composita.
ars, artis f,
skill; artifice; quality.
simulatio, -onis f.
hypocrisy; presents; understand et cum.
compono, -ere, posui,
match; oppose; supply erat.
funus, -eris n.
modicus, -a, um
moderate; small, mean.
testamentum , -i n.
for a long time; not until Caligula's accession in 37 CE; he paid all of her legacies.
inritus, -a, um
pro preposition + ablative
in front of.
rostra, -orum n. pl.
Rostra, the speakers platform in the Forum. Click on the
SPQR icon beside the Latin text for a reconstruction drawing of the
Gaius Caesar: Livias
great-grandson, Caligula, Emperor 37-41 CE. Suetonius,
IV.10.1 notes that at that time Caligula was still
praetextatus, i.e., wearing the
toga praetexta of a boy and therefore
under the age of 17.
res, rei f.
possessions, wealth; the State.
potior, potiri, potitus/a +
acquire, get hold of.
but, on the other hand.
in that; because.
suprema, -orum n. pl.
moment of death; funeral rites/duties (with officiis).
in preposition + accusative
desum, -esse, -fui + dative
fail in ones duty; be missing; pluperfect subjunctive.
magnitudo, -inis f.
size; large amount.
negotium, -i n.
litterae, -arum f.
letter, dispatch; see epistula below.
plead as an excuse; apologize for; Tiberius does not return from Capri for his mothers funeral.
honor, -oris m.
decerno, -ere, -crevi,
as it were; as if; translate with per modestiam.
imminuo, -ere, -minui,
very, quite; modifies paucis.
recipio, -ere, -cepi, -ceptum
admit, accept; ablative absolute with paucis.
addo, -ere, didi, -ditum
add; ablative absolute, understand uno or some such word.
ne conjunction + subjunctive
religio, -onis f.
malo, -ere, -ui
prefer; wish rather; this is an infinitive in indirect statement introduced by the understood Tiberius dixit.
pars, partis, f.
part; understand in + ablative.
idem, eadem, idem pronoun
the same one.
increpo, -ere, -ui, -itum
exclaim against, rebuke.
amicitia, ae, f.
alliance; friendship. While this was a traditional and honorable bond between men, Tiberius used it against his enemies, isolating them by punishing their friends, a notable case being Agrippina Maior. Tacitus tells us this slighting remark is aimed at the consul Fufius, who won his consulship through Livias favor, whose behavior Tiberius found woman-like and whose barbed jokes he would long remember.
ex eo: understand tempore
(i.e., his mother's death).
praeruptus, -a, -um
steep, rugged; here used metaphorically as hard, stern to describe Tiberius' rule from this point on; together with urgens, it modifies dominatio.
urguo = alternate form of
urgeo, -ere, ursi, --
burden, oppress; press, force, urge.
safe, unharmed; ablative absolute with Augusta.
till now; still.
perfugium, -i n.
a place to flee to, refuge, asylum; shelter.
inveteratus, a, um
erga preposition + accusative
obsequium, -i n.
compliance; obedience; allegiance; understand erat. Click on the SPQR icon beside the Latin text for a cameo portrait of Livia in the guise of Venus, observed by the young Tiberius or Drusus.
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