use, experience, custom; usu: a legal term indicating ownership by right of practice.
kingship, monarchy; sovereignty; kingdom; despotism. This word recurs regularly in the following passages, as greed for power is at the heart of Tullia's story; unlike other repeated words, regnum is glossed each time so that the meaning particular to the phrase may be chosen.
from time to time, sometimes.
toss about; discuss, mention; the subject is voces: expressions, remarks.
Lucius Tarquinius (later Superbus), younger son of Tarquinius Priscus, married Servius elder daughter, Tullia maior; his older brother Arruns Tarquinius married Tullia minor.
iniussu (found in
the ablative only)
without the command.
procure, win over; ablative absolute with voluntate.
territory, land; modified by capto ex hostibus, it is part of a second ablative absolute construction with diviso.
man by man, to each one individually.
divide, allot; this second ablative absolute explains how Servius won popular support: by, because, since.
-ere, ausi, ausum
dare, venture; the subject is Servius.
iuberentne: the enclitic -ne binds the two imperfect
subjunctives (understand vel between them) together in an indirect
question implied in the referendum ferre ad populum:
whether they wished or ordered.
ablative following declaratus est by so
declare; make evident. The subject is Servius.
ea res: this
strive after, pursue; aspire to, desire; gerundive with regni.
-ere, minui, minutum
comparative=all the more; more and more.
comparative adverb < impendo
vehemently, eagerly, greatly; translate with criminandi.
opposite, adverse, hostile; ablative absolute with voluntate. Tarquinius uses Servius popular land program to separate the king from his Senate; by voicing the priority of the aristocracy (and thus himself as a blood member of the royal dynasty) over the plebs (with whom Serius servile birth places him), he thus strengthens his claim to the throne.
ago, -ere, egi,
impersonal use of the present passive infinitive in indirect statement after senserat: that it was being done.
accuse, charge; gerundive with Servi, parallel with crescendi.
grow, increase in power; gerundive.
do, dare, dedi,
give, grant; the subject is occasionem, the indirect object is sibi; understand esse (indirect statement after ratus est).
think, believe; the subject is Lucius Tarquinius.
connect two grammatically unequal phrases, one in the nominative referring to
Lucius Tarquinius and the other an ablative absolute, referring to his second
wife, Tullia minor, whom Livy calls ferox below.
burning, eager; genitive of description.
mind; feeling; spirit; purpose.
urge, goad, provoke; ablative absolute construction with uxore Tullia, his brother's wife whom he married after the murders of his own wife and brother.
and in fact; translate first.
palace, court; subject of tulit.
ut + subjunctive
(see veniret, esset) introduces a purpose clause.
loathing, weariness; ablative of cause followed by the objective genitive regum.
-ius (comparative of maturus)
earlier; more timely; predicate adjective with libertas.
ultimus, -a, -um
(superlative of ultra)
last, final; predicate adjective with regnum.
pronoun whose antecedent is regnum.
produce, create; give birth to; foret: old imperfect subjunctive form of esset.
it is clear, evident; with parum: it is not clear enough.
grandson; descendent; read utrum filius an nepos, an indirect question introduced by liquet.
(comparative of multus)
greater number; more; majority; an ablative absolute with present participle of sum understood; Livy is choosing the relationship given by most of his sources.
declare; put forth; ediderim is a perfect subjunctive expressing future capacity ( I would declare), followed by the object in indirect statement: [eum] filium [esse].
mild, gentle; mellow, ripe; genitive of description with ingenii.
nupsi, nuptum + dative (his duobus [fratribus])
be married to (usually in reference to women). As was the early Roman custom among the elite, daughters received as their single name the feminine form of their gens name Tullius; although Livy does not use them, terms were added to distinguish multiple daughters in a household by birth order (maior, minor, tertia, etc.).
unequal; with longe: very different (Tullia maior is mitis; Tullia minor is ferox).
introduces a negative result clause.
happen, occur; meet; the verb is used impersonally.
good luck; chance; an ablative of cause, fortuna makes a positive statement, beyond the neutral forte.
so that; to the end that; a purpose construction with the subjunctives esset and possent that explains why Livy thought it was good fortune that Tullia Minor and Lucius Tarquinius, the two bolder personalities, were not married from the first.
adverb (comparative of diuturne)
of longer duration; more lasting.
establish, institute; constitui: passive infinitive with mores as the subject.
headstrong; wild; arrogant; aggressive. Although the word has positive connotations, such as bold, spirited, courageous, Livy's narration shows Tullia as ferox in a bad sense.
nihil materiae ...
no substance in regard to; no aptitude for; partitive genitive.
ambition; passion; desire. While Tullia finds these qualities admirable, they are suspect in Roman culture and often punished by the ancient gods.
boldness; daring; courage.
turn away; divert; the passive has a reflexive sense and is modified by tota (an adjective where English requires an adverb, totally). Tullia minor turns her affections toward her husband's brother (in alterum Tarquinium), a serious breach of family trust.
mirari...dicere...spernere: Tullia minor is the subject of
these historical infinitives: she admires her brother-in-law Lucius, calls him
a hero, despises her sister.
vir, -i m.
man; husband; hero. Translate as a predicate nominative. At the beginning of this sentence that reports Tullia's reactions, viro is used, meaning Arruns, her husband; here Tullia uses virum in reference to Lucius, meaning real man. How will you translate the virum that occurs at the end of the sentence?
be born; arise; be made; understand esse with virum and ortum, in indirect statement following dicere.
for the reason that; followed by the subjunctive because the reasoning is not Livy's but that of Tullia minor.
nancisci, nactus/a sum
find, come upon, get; nacta: the subject is her sister, Tullia maior.
be deficient; be wanting; be inactive; the ablative phrase surrounding the verb (muliebri audacia) points out Tullia maior's deficiency.
contraho, -ere, -traxi, -tractum
-um + dative (superlative of aptus)
most suitable, suited; understand est.
disturb, throw into confusion, violate; turbandi is a gerund in the genitive case after initium with omnia is its direct object.
conversation; talk; discussion; ablative of means with secretis. Note the interwoven word order that reflects the confused situation.
of another (i.e. her sister).
-ere, -feci, -factum + dative (viri alieni)
accustom; perfect passive participle modifying ea, Tullia minor.
contumelia, -ae f.
insult, abuse, reproach; with nullis.
peperci, parsum + dative
spare, refrain from; Tullia minor is the subject of the historical infinitive.
comparative adverb < recte
more rightly, justifiably; see quam below for the remainder of her statement.
widowed; unmarried; modifies se.
unmarried; predicate adjective with illum.
future perfect infinitive in indirect statement, used impersonally: it would
assert; contend; historical infinitive with Tullia minor as the subject, introducing an indirect statement.
join, bind; present passive infinitive.
-ere, -gui, ---
grow weak; languish; imperfect subjunctive of the passive periphrastic, used impersonally, introduced by ut: so that it was necessary to grow weak.
inactivity; cowardice; ablative of cause with aliena.
if; introduces a contrary to fact condition in past time (dedissent). The conclusion of the condition, visuram fuisse (she would have seen), is expressed as a fact within the indirect statement introduced above by contendere.
pronoun in the ablative after digna; the antecedent is
eum which is in apposition with virum.
antecedent of this relative pronoun is regnum; it introduces a
clause that is subjunctive (videat) by virtue of its being subordinate
to the apodosis (visuram fuisse) of the contrary to fact condition in an
apud patrem: at
the home of her father
fill; the subject is Tullia, followed by the accusative of person and genitive of thing.
temeritas, -tatis f.
[Arruns Tarquinius et
Tullia minor]: this phrase is debated, as the Tarquinius referred to
needs to be Lucius not Arruns.
join together; make continuous; continue unbroken; ablative of means with funeribus.
+ subjunctive (fecissent)
vacuus, -a, -um
empty; predicate adjective modifying domos.
prevent; forbid; ablative absolute with Servio and adprobante.
comparative of infestus, -a, -um
historical infinitives; Tullia is the subject of both.
-ere, -quievi, -quietum
rest; have respite; be at peace.
ne + subjunctive
(essent) introduces a purpose clause.
for nothing; ineffective; with no effect; predicate adjective with parricidia.
praeteritus, -a, -um
parricidium, i n.
murder; parricide; treason; the reference here is to the killing of her husband and sister. However, it hints at the future, when the literal meaning, murder of one's father, will be appropriate.
-fui + dative
be missing; fail; be lacking. Here Livy begins to report Tullia's words in indirect statement; understand [Tullia dicebat] before defuisse.
cui: a series
of relative pronouns follows (qui; cum quo; qui), each
introducing a relative clause of characteristic ( translate here: the kind
of man to whom...) with its main verb in the subjunctive (here,
diceretur, impersonal useage).
remember; think of.
be a slave; i.e. the kind of husband Tullia had in Arruns Tarquinius.
prefer; would rather; followed by quam sperare, the action not preferred.
call, pronounce, name; supply te in apposition to virum and regem.
eo peius ... quod
for the worse...that.
in this affair; here; on this occasion; translate est impersonally: there is.
gird; prepare; arm; translate the passive form reflexively. The Roman male belted (in order to lift higher) his tunic to free his legs in preparation for physical activity (farming, soldiering).
venienti with tibi, the indirect object of necesse
-orum m. pl.
Tarquinia; Tullia points out that Lucius, born in Rome, doesn't share the obstacles faced by his grandfather, Demaratus, who emigrated from Corinth to Tarquinia and took an Etruscan wife, or his father, Tarquinius Priscus, who married Tanaquil in Tarquinia and emigrated to Rome.
-iri, -itus/a sum
strive for; build; devise.
peregrinus, -a, -um
necesse est + dative (tibi and patri tuo).
penates, -ium m. pl.
household gods, protective spirits in the Roman house who are particularly concerned with the larder. A bronze figurine of one of the Penates. Read the phrase as di penates di patriique.
patrius, -a, -um
paternal, hereditary, native; patrii modifies di.
royal, kingly, regal.
throne; seat of state.
placement of these words at the beginning and end of the clause underscores
Tullias insistance on her husband's legitimate claim to the throne.
creat...vocatque: when there is a list of words in mixed
number and gender, the verb may agree with the last item, as in this case
partitive genitive; understand tibi in dative of possession.
disappoint, cheat; subjunctive in a question of obligation: why should you...?
-ere, -spexi, -spectum
behold, look upon .
allow, let; indicative in a direct question of fact.
go away, retire; facesse=present active imperative.
fall headlong; present passive imperative: sink (with retro) backwards.
stirps, -is f.
origin, family, stock.
comparative of similis + dative
more like, followed by the comparison (quam); supply es.
understand verbis, ablative of instrument.
rebuke; exclaim loudly; put forth noisily; increpando: gerund, ablative of means.
work upon, goad.
while, whereas; Tullia contrasts Tanaquil's effective exercise of political power (potuisset animo) with her own helplessness (nullum momentum...faceret): read the real story in Tanaquil.
moliri...ut: followed by a result clause.
successively; in order.
change; influence; importance.
take away; in with the gerundives dando and adimendo, having as their direct object regno.
-ere, -stinxi, -stinctum
incite, inspire; followed by a list of historical infinitives describing what actions Tarquinius undertook in response.
madness, frenzy; rage; also Furiae, the Furies or avenging spirits of the dead; snake-women who in Aeschylus' Oresteia pursued Orestes for spilling kin blood, a crime of which Tullia and Lucius are already guilty.
circumeo, -ire, ii, itum
go around, visit, canvass; historical infinitive, subject is Tarquinius.
clan, family, tribe; Tarquinius cleverly approached the minorum gentium patres, heads of the lesser families who had been made senators by his father.
admoneo, -ere, -monui, -monitum
remind, suggest, advise (accusative of person, genitive of thing); historical infinitive.
pro eo: in
exchange, in return, literally for it.
-ere, -petivi, -petitum
seek back, demand; historical infinitive.
entice; attract; historical infinitive.
not only...but also, here linking two unequal clauses.
great; huge; n. pl.
-liceri, -licitus/a sum
promise; pollicendo: gerund, ablative of means.
accusation, charge; criminibus: ablative of means.
place; situation; rank.
-ere, crevi cretum
thrive, prosper, rise up; historical infinitive with Tarquinius as the subject.
finally, at last. From this point on, Tarquinius commits the political acts aimed at overthrowing the king, his father-in-law.
agendae rei: gerundive in the dative after tempus.
accompany; crowd around; subject is Tarquinius.
column, band; ablative of accompaniment.
inrumpo, -ere, -rupi, -ruptum
burst into, break in.
-ere, -culi, -culsum
upset, unnerve; ablative absolute with omnibus.
preposition + ablative (Curia)
in the front of. The Curia was the meeting place of the King's advisory body of elders, the senators (Patres), its meetings to be called by the King.
-ere, sedi, sessum
sit; be in session; the subject is Tarquinius.
herald, public crier.
be summoned + ad followed by the accusative: before; by this action Tarquinius supplants Servius as King.
-ire-, -veni, -ventum
gather, come together; convenere= convenerunt.
immediately; at once.
construction of fearing after metu, followed by the
the subject of esset.
damage; offence; dative of purpose: harmful (to them).
novitas, -tatis f.
miraculum, -i n.
thunderstruck; terrified; astonished.
believe, think. Understand sunt, followed by indirect statement actum [esse], used impersonally (it had been done/accomplished, i.e., Servius was finished.
abuse; supply [Servi] with maledicta, object of an understood dixit; a long series of indirect statements with Servius as the subject follows (e.g. servum servaque natum [esse]) to the end of the chapter.
farthest; here, from the perspective of the present, it signifies earliest, farthest back; it agrees with stirpe, here best translated as origin, pointing up Servius' lack of ancestors.
begin, commence, undertake; a historical infinitive with esse understood.
formal period of rule between legitimate kings, during which an interrex
is selected to conduct business until the people elected a new king; ablative
absolute with inito.
enter into; undertake; begin; inito, ablative absolute with the verb to be understood. Notice the anaphora of non, pointing up successive violations of traditional (ut antea) political procedure.
-tiorum n. pl.
this could only refer during the monarchy to the Comitia Curiata, the most ancient of the Roman assemblies of the people by curia; one reason for calling this assembly was to confirm the selection of the king; an ablative absolute with habitis.
voting; vote; the Comitia Curiata was capable only of a yes or no vote on any proposal submitted to them.
proposer; authority; during the monarchy, the Senators would have originated and authorized the choice of king; in apposition with patribus, an ablative absolute with the verb to be.
this is a reference to Tanaquil's actions after the assassination of her
husband Tarquinius Priscus (see Tullia's complaint above; read the whole story
in Tanaquil); note
Tarquinius' sneering tone.
passive participle along with creatum, modifying fautorem, the
subject in the accusative of the main verb (divisisse) in the indirect
statement introduced by Tarquinius [dixit] in section 10.
supporter, patron; modified by natum and creatum, it is the subject in the accusative of divisisse in the indirect statement introduced by Tarquinius [dixit] in section 10. Note how Tarquinius demeans him by refusing to use the king's name.
infimus, -a, -um, superlative of
lowest, meanest, most inferior.
Tarquinius reserves the literal meaning of the word, the quality of being honorable, for the upper class, in which Servius has no place: the nobility of others.
tear away, rob; the perfect passive participle modifies agrum.
the first ranks, leading men.
-a, um, superlative of sordidus
lowest; basest; rabble; the plebs are reduced to their lowest common denominator by the phrase sordidissimo cuique.
burden; object of inclinasse.
universal; common; modifies onera.
turn, throw upon, transfer; inclinasse= inclinavisse, an infinitive in the indirect statement the construction introduced in section 10, with Servium as the unexpressed subject in the accusative.
census: 1. a registry of Roman citizens (free males only) by tribe, rated according to property, for the purposes of taxation and assignment of each citizen to one of five classes for fighting in the army; 2. the process (originally carried out by the king, then by the consuls, and finally by the censor) of enrolling citizens every five years into classes for taxation, military, and political purposes. Censum is the object of instituisse (the subject is Servium), an infinitive in the indirect statement construction introduced in section 10.
introduces a purpose clause with the imperfect subjunctives esset and largiretur.
conspicuous; distinctive; known; translate as a predicate adjective after fortuna esset and as a phrase with ad invidiam.
-etis comparative adjective
richer, more opulent; translate as a substantive. Although grammatically it belongs with fortuna, its position between invidiam and fortuna allows it to be understood with both.
from which, whence; translate as though: et fortuna locupletiorum parata [ei] esset ex qua.
whenever; followed here by the imperfect subjunctive (vellet).
-a, -um superlative of egens, -entis
needy, in want; translate as a substantive: the neediest ones.
give freely; bestow; lavish, with Servius again as the subject.
when; begin translating this temporal clause with the subjunctive with cum.
-ire, -veni, -ventum + dative
interrupt; pluperfect subjunctive.
-ire, -ivi, -itum
vestibulum, -i n.
partitive genitive with quid -- What business...?
ablative absolute with the verb to be understood.
consido, -ere, -sedi, -sessum
sit down; sit in session.
Tarquinius; cum begins a temporal clause followed by the subjunctive
fiercely; insolently; proudly: the meanings range from admirable to blameworthy behavior.
Tarquinius, the subject of the clause in indirect statement following the
implied respondisset. Note that he dismisses Servius by
directing his response to the Patres.
better; preferable, with multo=by far better; modifies heredem with esse understood. Note how the word order filium regis regni heredem betrays the meaning.
heir; successor; modified by potiorem with esse understood.
for a long enough time.
licentia, -ae f.
boldness; presumption; lawlessness.
eludo, -ere, elusi, elusum
cheat; elude; mock; modifies illum.
behave insolently towards; abuse; insult; the subject is illum (Servius), the object dominis (i.e. the Tarquinii). Note the pro-aristocratic tenor of the speech.
each/ both (of two).
concursus, -us m.
coming together; rush; gathering.
appareo, -ere, -ui,
appear; be seen; used impersonally: it is obvious.
be king; reign; understand eum as the subject of the future infinitive regnaturum [esse] and the antecedent of qui.
vinco, -ere, vici, victum
win; triumph; vicisset =pluperfect subjunctive with qui as the subject.
pl.= the ultimate acts.
compel; collect; ablative absolute with necessitate ipsa; the direct object of cogente is [eum] audere ultima.
-oris comparative of validus
strong; powerful with multo and two ablatives of respect (aetate, viribus).
middle; midst; it agrees with the noun it modifies: the middle of Servius, i.e. by the waist.
-ere, -ripui, -reptum
grab hold of, seize.
lift; carry out; bring out; modifies Servium.
partem: onto the lower level, i.e. outside the Curia, down the
steps (per gradus), into the Forum.
-ere, -ieci, -iectum
throw down, hurl; the subject is Tarquinius, the object is Servius.
purpose construction using the gerundive; Senatum is the object of
attendant; despite the word order, fit fuga refers to them, not to regis.
with prope: half-dead; modifies ipse (Servius).
return, make ones way; subjunctive following temporal cum: when.
consequor, -i, -secutus/a sum
pursue; overtake; the object is [Servium] fugientem.
interficio, -ere, -feci, -fectum
kill; translate before ab iis; the subject is Servius.
impersonal use of credo
it is believed, followed by indirect statement id factum [esse].
shrink from; be averse to; the subject is Tullia.
admonitus, -i m.
a two-wheeled coach.
-are, -stet, -statum
stand with; agree with; constat, impersonal use: it is well-known, certain, undisputed.
-vehi, -vectus/a sum
ride / drive in; enter; the subject is Tullia.
-eri, -itus/a sum
stand in awe of. Livy regularly portrays women in the Forum as a violation of proper order; he uses Tullia's entry into the Forum in a wheeled carriage, her intrusion into political assembly, and her abrogation of the right to name the new king (prima) as measures of her civic impiety.
coetus/coitus, -i m.
withdraw, go away (intransitive).
pervenio, -ire, -veni, -ventum
come to; arrive; reach; pluperfect subjunctive, introduced by temporal cum.
records the landmarks of her route out of the Forum to her home: she drives up
Cyprius Vicus (Copper Street), makes a right onto Clivus
Urbius (incline), then climbs the Collis Esquilinus
(hill; see map of
Early Rome); however, there is no archaeological
evidence to support the location of these streets.
Dianium, -i n.
place or temple sacred to the goddess Diana; Livy indicates that it survived at the top of Cyprius street into his own time (nuper= recently).
bend, turn; flectenti, in the dative case after restitit, refering to Tullia; her reaction to the sight before her becomes more inhuman in comparison with her driver's reaction.
subjunctive (eveheretur) introduces a purpose clause.
ride, move out.
-stiti, -- + dat.
stop short; halt; resist; the subject is pavidus is qui iumenta agebat; the object is [ei] flectenti: her as she was turning (Tullia seems to be directing the carriage, not physically driving it).
beast of burden; mule/horse.
slaughter; kill cruelly.
foul; revolting; disgraceful; along with inhumanum it modifies scelus.
hand over; hand down.
reminder, memorial; dative of purpose.
desecrated, accursed, infamous; translate Sceleratum as predicate nominative. The Clivus Urbius was renamed the Vicus Sceleratus from the point where it met the Vicus Cyprius (where Servius' body lay) and continued across the Mons Oppius.
mad; frantic; Tullia is driven out of her mind by the Furies, who punish her (agitantibus) for her crimes.
Tullia...fertur: is said; here Livy seems to say
she herself was driving the carriage (see Varro, De Lingua Latina V.32:
... Vicus Sceleratus, dictus a Tullia Tarquini Superbi uxore, quod ibi cum
iaceret pater occisus, supra eum carpentum mulio ut inigeret
part; share; object of the verb in indirect statement [se] tulisse
bloody; cruel; ablative of accompaniment.
defile, corrupt, pollute; ablative absolute with ipsa (Tullia) respersaque. The verb contaminare signifies making something not merely unclean but ritually impure (note the staining of the household gods), thus opening one to divine punishment; the "bad end" and evil repute to which their acts bring the couple is therefore justified by the gods.
respergo, -ere, -spersi, -spersum
splashed; sprinkle; ablative absolute with contaminata ipsa.
the gods of both households, the Servii and the Tarquinii, are seen as enraged;
the ablative absolute serves as an explanation for the outcome that results:
end; outcome, result; modified by similes + dative (malo principio); the subject of sequerentur.
recall, relate; supply [est] with memorata. The subjects are indigna caedes, invecta filia. Livy's summary of Brutus' speech before the citizens in the Forum relating the charges against the Tarquinii ends with the regicide of Servius that was patricide as well.
abominable; impius, a transfered epithet belonging to Tullia.
invoke; call upon; di is the subject; understand sunt.
avenger; ultores: in apposition with di.
-oris, comparative of atrox
hideous, dreadful; brutal.
by no means. Try the following word order to interpret this complex sentence: his atrocioribusque aliis memoratis, quae, credo, haudquaquam facilia scriptoribus relatu, praesens indignitas rerum subicit.
easy; facilia modifies quae (n.pl.) and is followed by the dative (scriptoribus) and the supine of the verb (relatu).
immediate; present (in relation to Brutus, that is).
outrage; insult; indignation. Livy observes here that Brutus' narration of the deeds of the Tarquinii was inspired by the outrage he felt at the levents, but that they were difficult for historians to write about.
bring up, suggest; the subject is praesens indignitas rerum, the object is quae.
urge; drive. The subject is Brutus. A verb of urging toward future action is followed by ut and the subjunctive (abrogaret, iuberet) in a substantive clause of purpose.
annul; cancel; take away; followed by the accusative of thing and dative of person.
exile; the plural is used to include the entire family.
younger men, subordinates; ablative absolute with lectis armatisque.
unasked; voluntarily; of one's own accord.
select, choose; ablative absolute.
move rapidly; rouse; ad concitandum exercitum adversus regem: gerundive in a purpose construction.
-sci, profectus/a sum
set out; proceed; Brutus' destination: is Ardea, where the Roman army is camped.
Spurius Lucretius (dative case), the father of the violated Lucretia.
urbis: the Prefect of the City, the surrogate in Rome for the king
when he was not in the city, possessed imperium, which allowed him to
perform all regal duties in the city.
-ere, -ui, utum
appoint, establish, set up.
preposition with the accusative
during; in the course of.
profugio, -ere, -fugi, ---
escape; flee from.
curse; understand eam; ablative absolute with invocantibusque viris mulieribusque.
-ere, -cessi, -cessum
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